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IELTS

  • 2019年6月9日
  • 2019年6月9日
  • 未分類
  • 218回
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1.The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education. The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chart shows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared.

The figures illustrate the result of an opinion survey about the reason why adult people choose to study and how tuition costs should be funded. It is clear that based on the survey result, the two main reasons why adults have continued their study are due to they are interested with the subject and to obtain the degree. It is also noticed that the survey also shown that most of the education cost should be funded by individuals themselves.

It can be seen that the two main purposes why adult continue their study are because they interested with the program and to obtain the qualification, as these two reasons result reached 40% and 38% respectively. Meanwhile, the percentages of the survey for reasons of helpful for their current job, improving prospect and promotion, and that they like studying were in the range between 22% and 20%. As for figures of those who study for the purpose of changing jobs and to meet new people, they were below 15% each.

As for the survey result of the education cost, it is obvious that 40% of the cost should become the burden of the respective person themselves. Then 35% should be provided by the employer and 25% from the taxpayer.

2.There are many different types of music in the world today. What do we need music? Is the traditional music of a country more important than the international music that is heard everywhere nowadays?

Kinds of music people listen nowadays are of different tastes and types. For instance, modern international pop and rap music as well as classical traditional country songs all vary from each other and people listen to them with great interests. This is because music has been part of our daily lives even in the ancient times. In this essay, reasons on why music is necessary in every Filipino people’s lives and the importance of the Philippine traditional folk music over foreign songs that young Filipinos and Filipinas always hear will be discussed.

Music is a vital part in every Filipinos’ lives. Firstly, Philippine folks considered it to be one of the most popular and ancient modes of human expressions. It features largely in all histories and all cultures and indeed has been one of the main ways of passing on cultural traditions to new generations of the country. Secondly, because of this, many people view music as a positive influence for the societies. This influence on individuals is wholly beneficial as it is a long-established way of communicating and helping us understand the whole range of human emotion and experience in a more spiritual language than words can represent.

However, the classical music traditions of the Philippines are not necessarily part of the music many Filipinos and Filipinas experience today. In the modern world today, most of the country’s young people constantly exposed themselves to loud modern foreign songs as a result of globalization via the Internet. But I think that it is more important for young people of the country to learn traditional music to enable them to know the origins of our Philippine ancestors.

In conclusion, I think that we need traditional music because it is an integral part of human expression that we cannot really separate from our lives even if there are various evolution of modern music we tend to listen everyday through the web nowadays such as American rap songs and Korean pop music.   

3.The diagram below shows how the Australian Bureau of Meteorology collects up-to-the-minute information on the weather in order to produce reliable forecasts. write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The given diagram shows how the weather information is collected by Australian Bureau of Meteorology to provide accurate and updated weather forecasting. As is observed from the given illustration, the weather information collection is done via satellites, radars and drifting buoys and then analyzed before broadcasting them to the public.

As is presented in the diagram, the weather information is collected using three different types of sources namely, satellites, radars and drifting buoys. The raw data collected from satellites is basically satellite photos while radar information are observed from the radar screens and the synoptic charts are yielded from the drifting buoys and these three types of data are fed in a computer system to analyze and prepare the weather news for broadcasting.
      
After than the weather news is broadcasted in different public media like televisions, radios and telephones. The final information regarding the weather is provided to the public via TV news, radio broadcasting and as recorded announcement in devices like telephones. 

4.Should wealthy nation be required to share their wealth among poorer nations by providing such things as food and education ?Or is it the responsibility of the government of poorer nation to look after their themselves?

Although there is wide disparity in the resources  available to the people living in different countries, but,  still I would argue that the government should be accountable for fulfilling its citizens day to day needs.

It is imperative that the government in each country is held responsible for providing its citizen basic needs. Firstly, if help is always at hand, some governments may not put in all their efforts to meet both hands, while, few others are going an extra mile to cater for their own as well as the other nations demand. Poor nation can borrow money from world bank to set up , for instance , short scale industries to create employment for its people and  boost the economy in long run. Various other steps can always be taken by venturing in trade and commerce for well- being of the nation.

Secondly, it may seem unfair to the citizens of the nation providing support that the taxes paid by them for the development of their own nation are being used towards others. Furthermore, it is also a herculean task to categorize all the nations into rich and poor, and then to select a criteria to decide the priority among nations seeking help. Despite all that, we all should be ready to offer help to a nation in times of crisis that arise due  to unforeseen circumstances, for instance , floods, earthquake, hurricanes.

In conclusion, the common needs of a man should be looked after by the ruling government he chose for himself while in times of calamities, we all should stand united for each other.

5.The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows trends in consumption of fast foods. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The images below illustrate the fast food consumption in Britain.

The chart illustrates how much money is spent on fast food every week, and the graph describes the consumption of fast food between 1970 and 1990.

A person with high income consumes about 40 hamburgers per week, while for average it is between 30 and 35, and for low income it is only 15. However, the consumption of fish and chips is a little over 15 for a person with higher income, but for an average person it is around 20 and for a poorer one it is between those two. Pizza seems to be consumed the least by all, about 20 by a wealthy, 10 by an average and around 7 by a poor consumer.

The graph shows that the most increased product consumption is seen among the hamburgers over the 20 years, going from 20 grams to over 500. Pizza follows, with increasing from about 30 to around 300 grams, while we can see that fish and chips consumption has descended between 1970-1985 (from 300 to 200 grams), and slightly increased again during the last 5 years hitting its maximum at around 230 grams.

6.News editors decide what to broadcast on television and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influence these decisions? Do we become used to bad news? Would be better if more good news was reported?

In today’s modern world, a growing amount of news and information on television or newspapers have considerably influenced the public. Besides, what factors are impacted on reporting information on news media is an issue many people feel strongly about. This essay will discuss various influences as well as associated with phenomenon above.

As far as I am concerned, there is a wide range of factor accounting for publishing news and broadcasts. The most noticeable, I believe, is that aiming at a high audience rating so as to maximize profits. This leads to pursuing the increasingly diverse needs of viewers from all walks of life in order to satisfy and cater for them. Another contributory factor is that for many countries, news editors have to succumb to political pressure, distorting facts and misleading the public. To put it another way, they are controlled entirely by powerful political parties and enjoined to disregard the truth. This is particularly true in many undemocratic countries like Chinese, North Korea, and Vietnams where information is seriously censored and even disseminated political ideals to guide public opinions.

Moreover, living in the information era, people are bombarded with daily amount of news, including good and bad news, form multiple media. Today’s coverage and press might sometimes be less trustworthy mainly because it often exaggerates the level of the real information, in order to boost the attention of the desired audiences. Furthermore, some media companies use the stories of people’s private life, seductive images and violent or obscene contents to appeal viewers, especially teenagers. It means that their thoughts and behaviors might be changed and shows a tendency to hatred, violence, jealousy, and even copycat phenomenon. However, the role of news media in reporting good news, such as someone’s achievement and humane stories, should be acknowledged. That will make quicker progress toward society better.

In conclusion, what today’s news and information on media we receive is influenced by some main factors as hooking viewers, increasing profits, and obeying political regulations. Besides, the news media can have a double-edged impact on society by good and bad news. By doing so, we can ensure that choosing information carefully before reading and watching is indispensible to us.

7.Chorleywood is a village near London whose population has increased steadily since the middle of the nineteenth century. The map below shows the development of the village.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the development of the village.

The given diagram shows the development done in Chorleywood village of London from 1868 to 1994. As is presented in the diagram, the development in this village had been done in different times and much of these developments were done in 1970s to 1994 while the roads and railroads were built earlier. According to the diagram, the main road of Chorleywood village was built prior to the motorway and railroads. The Motor road was established in 1970 while the railway was built in 1909.

Before 1900, only a portion of the village was developed and later (Between 1883 to 1922) the station was built and some development works were finished. The area near the station was then developed and during the end of this development the motorway was completed. Later after 1970s the development process seemed accelerated and many areas of the village came under the development process and at the beginning of the 1900, the railway was established.

The land roads including the motorway, roads and railroads of this village connects almost all of the parts of the city and the development had been done mostly based on the establishment of the transportation systems. The park and gold course is in the middle of the village and makes the central place of the village.

8.fashion will be to have several careers or ways of earning money and further The idea of having a single career is becoming an old fashioned one. The new education will be something that continues throughout life.

It is believed that focusing on a single career is out of date these days. The new trend is that people should have several kinds of occupations in their life, and they should never stop learning. The following essay will explain in details about why people should have several careers in their life and why they should continue their education till the end.

It is a fact that in the old days, most of the people were loyal to their company, focused on their occupations and stayed there until they retired. However, some people believed that the act is old fashioned and people should have various kind of experiences in their life. Having different kinds of working experiences is a precious asset, since people could bring innovative idea from their previous company and implement it in their current workplace. Besides that, to become a general leader, people should have had experiences in different types of working functions. For example, a Managing Director manages the company in overall, and it would be best if he had experienced in the field of Finance, Production, Human Resources and Sales.

Furthermore, it is undeniable that continuous education is an essential thing these days. People need to update with the current condition since economy, information technology and science develop rapidly. Those who are not following the latest information and regulations will face difficulties in their careers. For instance, people who work in the Information technology sector should update themselves with the latest type of antivirus software, since many new viruses which are threatening the networks these days. Those who fail to update their software will face serious problems in their database.

In conclusion, I personally believe that having different types of works in life is a positive thing and bring a lot of benefits to the person’s career, and it is important for people to study or learn throughout their life as the world never stop to develop.

9.The table below shows the consumer durables(telephone, refrigerator,etc) owned in britain from 1972 to 1983.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing th information shown below.

The given presentation shows data on the number of different consumer durables owned by British people from 1972 to 1983 and compares the percent of people use those devices during the years.

As is observed from the given data, 33% households had central heating machines initially in 1972 and the percentage increased each year and reached to 64% in 1983, which shows that the central heating machine users almost doubled in 12 years. Again, Television was the most common household equipment with 93% households had them. This ration reached to 98 percent with slight increase year by year. However, Video was introduced a later time as no data is given for this equipment except 1983 when only 18% houses had them. Then Vacuum cleaner, refrigerator and washing machines were three most popular household appliances after TV which was owned by 70% house owners in 1972 and the percentages increased to over 90 after 10 years. Interestingly, dishwasher was very less popular as only 3% houses had them initially in 1978 and their user’s percentages reached to only 5 in 1983. Finally, the percentage of houses that had telephones was only 42% but with their popularity this percentage reached to 77 after 12 years.

In conclusion, the television was the most popular consumer durable while dishwasher was the least common type of durables the British people had during the years 1972 to 1983. Vacuum cleaner, refrigerator and washing machine were three other popular consumers’ durables for the given period in Britain.

10“Fatherhood ought to be emphasised as much as motherhood. The idea that women are solely responsible for deciding whether or not to have babies leads on to the idea that they are also responsible for bringing the children up.”

For nine to ten months, a woman endures the drastic physiological and emotional changes that pregnancy brings about. Because of this, a woman has the greatest right to decide on whether she will have a child or not. An ideology exists that because women take full responsibility on decisions about child bearing, she also is responsible for rearing the child. I believe that this idea is absolutely faulty.


Firstly, decisions on child bearing may be greatly affected by the woman’s choice. However, other factors are also considered such as a couple’s financial ability to support a child’s growth. Aside from that, parenthood is a shared responsibility. A father’s role is not limited to sperm donation, but also includes changing diapers in the middle of the night. Also, a father should always be involved in child rearing because there are activities that are best suited to be done by a father figure, such as bringing the child to a sports event. Consequently, a child who rarely sees one’s father creates a negative perception of him and may possibly create a stronger relationship with the mother alone.

In addition, women are different in the modern era. More women are breaking the traditional view that they are confined in the four wall of the home as a housewife. Therefore, there should be a joint agreement between both parents to divide the tasks. To cite an example, a mother would send the child to school while a father will be in-charge of picking up the child after class.

In conclusion, I firmly believe that it is time to abolish the idea of putting the entire child rearing work on women. The idea of shared parenthood must be implemented to keep up with the change in family dynamics that occurred over the years.

11.The chart below shows the amount of leisure time enjoyed by men and women of different employment status.

The graph compares the amount of leisure time enjoyed by people of different employment level s in a typical week in the year 1998-1999.

In the given column graph, no data has been provided for the part-time employed and house-staying men. For rest of the cases, Men have more leisure time than women of the same category.  The highest amount of leisure hours are enjoyed by those, who are unemployed. Unemployed men had approximately 85 hours of spare time and women from the same category had about 83 hours. The retired people also enjoyed the same amount of leisure activities as did the unemployed men and women.  On the contrary, full-time employed men had a total of 40 hours leisure time compared to about 37 hours of women from the same status. Finally woman with part-time job had 40 hours-time to spend as leisure time and Housewives had 50 hours leisure time.

In conclusion, unemployed and retire people, both men and women enjoyed more leisure time than employed people and men compared to women had more time for leisure activities. 

12.“Prevention is better than cure.”
Out of country’s health budget, a large proportion should be diverted from treatment to spending on health education and preventive measures.

In this world, many people are decreasing by various types of health problem because the lack of appropriate health education and preventive actions. That is why government should expend huge amount of money from health budget for cure related education as well as preventive measure. It is agreed that this policy has a vast amount of benefit; moreover, this will be proven by analyzing economical point of view of a country and health aspect of people.

Firstly, many regimes spend an enormous amount of money in order to treat their people from different type of serious illness. This extravagance can be easily diminished when state commences of educational healthcare system by spending money to the health teaching system. As an example, if the administration perceives to their slums that smoking, drinking, and so on is bad things for human body through this educational program, many people will be not attacked by the severe sickness. This could save a large amount of money of the state. As can clearly be seen from this the illustration that this idea may bring colossal economical benefit to the government.

Secondly, many governments fight against several types of diseases especially the diabetes and the heart diseases. Before these health problems assault to the people, it can be ceased by taking some preventive measure. For example, exercise, sports, entertainment etc. can decrease the chances to become these patients. Making parks, playground, and cinema hall can influence people to do exercise, which can protect the people from these intense sickness. This can be achieved by investing the money for preventive measure from health budget.

In conclusions, this idea is indispensable not only to the people but also to the governments. However, the tremendous amenities of this policy fortify my argument. Therefore, government should spend money for health education and preventive measure from health budget.

13The first chart below shows the results of a survey which sampled a cross-section of 100,000 people asking if they traveled abroad and why traveled for the period 1994-98. The second chart shows their destination over the same period.

The given table compares the figures of a research on why 100 thousand of the UK residents visited overseas from 1994 to 1998, and the given bar chart illustrates which countries they travelled during this time.

As a whole, majority of the UK citizens travelled abroad for entertainment, and Western Europe was their most favorable destination. By looking at the table, it can be seen that generally there was a growing tendency for the UK people to travel into other countries from 1994 to 1998. During second year, in 1995, the total number of travellers marginally declined from just over 22000 to nearly 21500; however, it steadily grew and reached the peak of approximately 29000 in the year 1998.

These people gradually became more interested to travel to all three regions during this period, but Western Europe was the best option. In 1994, just below 20,000 of the UK citizens went into Western Europe, compared with only almost 1000 into the North America. Furthermore, after a small drop in 1995, the population of Western Europe visitors remarkably increased and reached the maximum of above 24000 in 1998, which was far more significant than the other two locations.

In conclusion, the most proportion of the UK citizens had a trip to Western Europe to spend their holidays and for business trip.

14.Without capital punishment(the death penalty)our lives are less secure and crimes of violence increase.Capital punishment is essential to control violence in society.
To What extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Before talking about the essential role of death penalty, you have to think about the meaning, and the purpose, of any kind of punishment. If you consider that the purpose is to prevent the guilty from being nasty again, you can be seduced by an argumentation in favor of the suppression of capital punishment.

But you have to think about another aspect of the problem: a punishment is also useful to impress people, to make them fear the law. In fact, let’s take the example of a young misfit, which has grown in a violent atmosphere, influenced by older delinquents, etc.  He lives in the streets; he’s got no aim but to survive. This is the kind of person who could possibly kill someone for money, or even for fun .Why would he fear prison? Life would be easier for him there. In addition, in many cases, when you behave normally, you can benefit from penalty reductions. This young misfit needs to be impressed; he needs to know that the law is a frontier. When you cross it, you can lose your life. That is why capital punishment helps keeping a distance between robbery and murder. If you abolish it, you suppress the difference between these two types of crime, which are completely different.

But there is also a limit to define: even if death penalty is unavoidable, it would be a crime to apply it to inadequate cases. If there is no premeditation or past facts which can justify such a punishment, it is far too strict to apply death penalty. That is why the lawmakers have to establish precisely the context in which capital punishment car being pronounced. That is the price to pay to limit violence without using excessive violence.

15.The table below shows the figures for imprisonment in five countries between 1930 and 1980.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The given bar graph shows data on the number of prisoners in five countries namely Britain, Australia, New Zealand, US and Canada between 1930 and 1980. As is given on the graph, Canada had the highest number of prisoners initially in 1930 while Great Britain had the least prisoners in the same year but after 50 years in 1980 the number of total prisoners decreased in Canada and United States had the largest number of prisoners.

Initially in 1930, there were 120 thousand prisoners in Canada which was the largest number among the given five countries. There were 100 thousand prisoners both in US and New Zealand which was second largest in this year. Australia had around 70 thousand prisoners and Great Britain had only 30 thousand prisoners which was least in number. After ten years in 1940, Prisoners’ number in Britain remained same while the number decreased in Australia, New Zealand and Canada. But this year the total number of prisoners increased in US by 30 thousand and reached to 130 thousand which was highest among the five countries for this year. In 1950, the prisoners’ number increased in Britain and slightly decreased in Australia and New Zealand. On the other hand the prisoner in Canada increased and got highest among the five countries and decreased in US. In 1960, the prisoners, number increased in all the countries except Canada and US had the largest number of prisoners. Interestingly in 1970, the number became same in Britain, New Zealand and Australia which was about 63 thousand and both Canada and US had more than 80 thousand prisoners in this year. Finally in 1980, the prisoners’ number all of the countries increased while the number decreased in Australia. US had the highest number of prisoners in this year amounting around 137 thousand and Great Britain, Canada and New Zealand had more than 80 thousand prisoners in this year.

In summary, over the 50 years period the crime and imprisonment number got worse in US and Britain while Australia, Canada and New Zealand did some progress in it. In 1980, Australia had the least number of prisoners which indicate their improvement in law and order. 

16.The position of women in society has changed markedly in the last twenty years. Many of the problems young people now experience, such as juvenile delinquency, arise from the fact that many married women now work and are not at home to care for their children. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

The issue whether ‘married women should work or should stay at home to care their children’ is always a disputable issue. Strong arguments are present from both the sides and let us discuss in a detailed way.

Firstly, married women should work to get financial independence and her income helps the family too. Nowadays, expenses are increasing day by day and this extra income definitely helps the family to overcome the expenses. I observed that the families who are having two salaries always can afford the better education for their children, can have better lifestyle, and can plan better savings. Everybody is aware that currently many women got good education and gained skills which are required for the industry. So married women should go the work and utilize their skill which helps to the Society.

There is other side of coin always. Married women have more responsibility about their children. Children are connected more to mother, so mother should take care of children. Mother should teach children about society, need of education. If married women become busy with the work, children future will become uncertain. I observed some children are grown in a systematic way who are taken care by mother.

In Conclusion, I prefer married women should work as well as concentrate on children career. They should balance their work and personal life. Male too need to help women in children’s care.

17The charts below show the number of Japanese tourists travelling abroad between 1985 and 1995 and Australia’s share of the Japanese tourist market.

This chart shows us about Japanese tourists go abroad for travelling in a decade and Australian’s share of marketing for Japanese tourists. Between 1985 and 1995, Japanese tourists travelling abroad has dramatically increased. In1985, there were about 5 million travelers goes abroad. Since 1985, the number of travellers went up dramatically until 1990. It was almost twice then between 1990 and 1993 the number remain stable, which is about 12 million. From 93 to 95 it rose slightly. Lastly, in 1995 there were about 15 million people who went abroad.

The other chart is Australian’s share of Japanese’s tourist market. This is between 1985 and 1994. About 2 million Japanese tourists went to Australia in 1985. Between 85 and 89 people went there increased sharply, which is almost 3 times more. In 1990, the numbers slightly fell but from 90 to 94 numbers went up. However, the number of people from 94 to 95 did not go up on those who went to Australia. It remains the same or slightly decreased.

18. Popular events like the football world cup and other international sporting occasions are essential in easing international tensions and releasing patriotic emotions in a safe way. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

It is believed that international events such as the Olympic Games play a vital role in maintaining the world peace, and to show nationalism in a proper way. To a certain point, I would agree with the statement but some fights among the supporters have been reported in past venues.

On the one hand, it is true that events such as the World Football Cup or the Commonwealth Games can be used as a tool to maintain the world peace, and to show patriotism in a secure way. It can be seen that during the international tournaments, athletes from various nations are competing against each other in a sportive way. Although their countries of origin might be at war or conflict, but they shake hands and greet each other.  And during these moments, the sport people can show their nationalism by giving their best effort in the games, since they are the representative of their own countries.

On the other hand, although the tournaments positively affect the world peace, sometimes the athletes and the supporters get carried away with their emotions. In certain cases, several athletes had fought against each other because they could not manage their temperament, and the situation had triggered the supporters to fight against each other as well. As a result, it caused some tensions between countries as well. Therefore, many experts have suggested that athletes should be given proper explanation about controlling their emotions during the games, because it could give negative effects to the supporters and the relationship among nations.

In conclusion, it is undeniable that international sport & games such as the European Football Cup or SEA Games are effective tool in easing the tensions among nations, and to show the patriotism in the right way. I personally agree with the statement, but I think it is also important for the athletes to be trained about controlling their emotions.

19The chart below shows the amount spent on six consumer goods in four European countries.Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The given bar chart compares the money spent on different consumer goods by the people of four European countries namely Britain, France, Italy and Germany. As is observed from the illustration, British people spent more money on those consumer goods while Germans spent the least to buy them.

As is given in the bar graph, British people spent more than 170 thousand pound sterling for photographic films which is the highest amount spent on any consumer good by them as well as than other countries. British people also spent more than 160 thousand pound sterling for purchasing Toys and CDs, which is more than any other given nation. For perfumes, Tennis racquets and personal stereos they spent more than other nations as well. On the other hand, French people spent around 165 thousand pounds sterling on purchasing photographic films which makes it the highest amount they spent on consumer goods.    

They spent about 158 thousands on Toys which is a tie with the Italian people. For photographic films, toys and CDs, their spending totaled second highest among the given four nations. Finally they spent less than 150 thousand on remaining consumer goods. Italian citizens spent around 150 thousands on personal stereos, tennis racquets and CDs while they spent about 5 thousand more on photographic films and toys. Finally, German people spent less in all consumer good items than any other nation and their average spending was 145 thousand which is less than the other nations. 

20.When a country develops its technology, the traditional skills and ways of life die out. It is pointless to try and keep them alive. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion.

The issue ‘with the development of the technology traditional skills and the conventional life style die’ is a controversial one and needs deeper argument before supporting or opposing the issue. Overall, I disagree with the opinion expressed; I would like to begin by pointing out that ‘traditional skills and ways of life’ are not totally vanished from one country, culture or community because of the introduction of technology.

In many ways, the history of civilization is the history of technology: from the discovery of fire to the invention of the wheel to the development of the Internet we have been moving on from previous ways of doing things. Some technologies, such as weapons of mass destruction, are of negative impact. Others, such as medical advances, positively help people to live better or longer, and so very much help traditional ways of life. Surely, few people would seek to preserve such traditions as living in caves. Technology will always follow its own footsteps no matter what we, some people think about it. Technology advances because we need it. So there is no way to prevent the advancement of the technology but we should embrace it positively. The generation of a country is responsible to preserve their own custom and tradition and if people feel eager to save a tradition then there is no way technological advancement will destroy it. There are many cases where technology replaces human labor to create certain things for example: handmade sari, which are still popular in many countries. Technology in this case has not destroyed the old tradition but has introduced a faster and less expensive ways to create the same thing.             

Interestingly, technology can positively contribute to the keeping alive of traditional skills and ways of life. For example, the populations of some islands are too small to have normal schools. Rather than breaking up families by sending children to the mainland, education authorities have been able to use the Internet to deliver schooling online. In addition, the Internet, and modern refrigeration techniques, is being used to keep alive the traditional skills of producing salmon; it can now be ordered from, and delivered to, anywhere in the world.

In conclusion, without suggesting that all technology is necessarily good, I think it is by no means ‘pointless’, in any way, to try to keep traditions alive with technology. We should not ignore technology, because it can be our friend and support our way of life.

The charts below show the level of participation in education and science in developing and industrialized countries in 1980 and 1990..

The given bar charts compares the educational involvements of students in terms of total years of education and their participation in science related subjects and study in developing and industrialized countries from 1980 to 1990.

According to the first bar graph, the average years of schooling in developing counties was only about 2 while this was over 8 years in industrialized countries in 1980. After ten year, the number of year in school in an average increased both in the developing and industrialized countries reaching just over 3 years in developing countries while over 10 years in developed countries.

According to the second graph, the number of Scientist and Technician was much higher in developed countries than the developing countries. The percentage of Scientist and Technician in developing countries both in 1980 and 1990 was below 20 while this was around 50 on an average in developed countries.

Finally, the third graph represents that the amount spent on Research and Development in industrially developed countries was much higher than the spending in developing countries. In 1980 the spending was around 50 billion US dollar in developing countries while this amount was more than 150 billion US dollar in developed countries. Interestingly, after 10 years the spending in Research & Development in developed countries was doubled while that amount decreased almost by 50% in developing countries.

 In many countries children are engaged in some kind of paid work. Some people regard this as completely wrong, while others consider it as valuable work experience, important for learning and taking responsibility.
What are your opinions on this?

The issue of children doing paid work is a complex and sensitive one. It is difficult to say who has the right to judge whether children working is ‘wrong’ or ‘valuable’. Opinions will also differ as to ‘learning’ benefits: no doubt teachers and factory owners, for example, would have varying concerns.

An important consideration is the kind of work undertaken. Young children doing arduous and repetitive tasks on a factory production line, for example, are less likely to be ‘learning’ than older children helping in an old people’s home. There are health and safety issues to be considered as well. It is an unfortunate fact that many employers may prefer to use the services of children simply to save money by paying them less than adults and it is this type of exploitation that should be discouraged. There is a big possibility that those working kids are influenced by different types of people they are working with and some lead them to an unkind ways. For example: most of the working kids in the factory start smoking and even abuse drugs at a very early age. Some kids are engaged in full-time jobs to support their family and thus how completely destroying their education.

However, in many countries children work because their families need the additional income, no matter how small. This was certainly the case in the past in many industrialized countries, and it is very difficult to judge that it is wrong for children today to contribute to the family income in this way. A working child in many cases is the only earning member for many families. So their support is invaluable and they can’t leave the jobs no matter how hazardous the job is.

Nevertheless, in better economic circumstances, few parents would choose to send their children out to full-time paid work. If learning responsibilities and work experience are considered to be important, then children can acquire these by having light part-time jobs or even doing tasks such as helping their parents around the family home, which are unpaid, but undoubtedly of value in children development.

The graph below shows the unemployment rates in the US and Japan between March 1993 and March 1999. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.

The line graph compares figures for unemployment in America and Japan over a period of six years.

Overall, at the beginning of the period, the unemployment rate was higher in US compared to Japan. However, the proportion of the workforce unemployed in Japan rose steadily between March 1993 and March 1999, while the figure for America fell.

In March 1993, US had 7% unemployment, in comparison with only 2.5% in Japan. Between 1993 and 1997, the American unemployment rate showed a downward trend, whereas the figure for Japan had an upward trend

By march, the unemployment rate fell to 5.5%. in contrast, In Japan, the unemployment rate rose steadily, reaching above 4%. The percentage of unemployment in america fell over the next three years, dropping to 5% in march 1999. There was an overall fall of 2% in the US workforce over this period of six years.

On the other hand, the proportion of Japanese workforce not working rose to over 5% in march 1998. The figure plateaued between march 1998 and march 1999. There was an overall rise of 2.5% in the number of people not working over a period of six years.

It is interesting to note that both the US and Japan had 5% unemployment by the end of the period shown.

Improvement in health, education and trade are essential for the development of poorer nations. However, the government of richer nation should take more responsibility for helping the poorer nations in such areas.

In balancing the world economic growth, the under development of the third world nations have been drawn to the attention of the developed countries of the Western. Thus, governmental policies and interference in the agricultural business of the poorer nations were made to secure their dominant source of the economy. Many discussions among economists and politicians also put their focus on the other aspects. That is, to improve the health, education and trade for the developing countries. However, the improvements cannot be made by these countries, but more external assistance and aids should be done.

Because of the shortage of food supply, the people in poorer nations are easily prone to disease, hunger and death. When natural or environmental disasters happen, they are threatening with their lives. Education cannot be well developed as a result of frequent droughts, famines and disease spreading. The other countries, while emphasizing on the development of agriculture in the Third World, cannot really give the solution to the cyclical problem which has been existing for a long time. It is time to consider the consequences of all the waste of efforts in trying to help the economic growth of the Third World and to think from the other perspectives. The richer countries have the power to rebuild the Third World by taking care the essentials – health, education and trade. More aids for providing the medicine, educational needs and materials can be done by the richer countries. The assistance of trade and developing business in the poorer countries also can be of a great help to the poorer nations.

If the richer countries can be more serious about the essential issues of how a nation develops, and well consider the special situations and circumstances those poorer nations are facing, the improvements will be more efficiently made. The governments of developed countries are, in some ways, responsible – though not obliged – for the future of those developing countries.

The table below shows the proportion of different categories of families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.

The given table presents data regarding the poor families of different types in Australia for the year 1999. As is observed from the information, 11% of all households lived under poverty in 1999 in Australia and among them sole parents and single person with no child were the highest in percentage that lived under poverty.  

According to the given data, more than 1.8 million families of Australia lived in poverty in 1999 that formed 11% of the total households. Among them, around 50 thousands poor family came from the Single aged person and aged couple who formed 6% and 4% of total of that family types. Sole parents and single person with no child formed the largest percentage of poor families and their percentage were consecutively 21% and 19% of their family types. Highest percentage of poor family was from sole parents and highest number of poor family was from couple with children type. Comparatively, couple with no child had less poverty percentage than the single with no children.

In conclusion, family type with aged people suffered less from poverty than the sole parents and single persons with no child.

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of three of the following as media for communicating information. State which you consider to be the most effective.
-comics
-books
-radio
-television
-film
-theatre

In our daily life, we communicate information through lots of different media like: internet, television, radio, books, cell phone, film etc. We are living in such a time when information is one of the most important issues and the information technologies as well as the communication media greatly influence our lives. The rapid-growing websites and TV channels are many of few little examples how media are spreading to make information easily accessible. All the media for information interchange have advantages and disadvantages and not all can attract all types of audiences. Comics, books, radios, televisions, film and theater are all very powerful media for communicating information. In my opinion books, televisions and film among those aforementioned six media are most effective.

Books are the witness of history and the main source from which we gain knowledge. From very ancient period till now books are working as the light-house for our society. In our early age, we gather most of our knowledge, skills from books. It opens new horizons in front of us. The writer writes down their experiences, imaginations, knowledge, explanation etc. about each and every issue of our lives. Books are the long lasting protocol to make a bridge among writers and readers.

However, all are not happy to read books. They expect something easier and more vivid. Music, radios, films etc. are more appealing to them. Television is another powerful media. Watching television is a part of our daily lives. Most of the people who have a TV set, watch programs, news etc. with proper attention. It is a strong medium for Government and other organizations to send their messages to the mass population. Program representatives also broad cast the people’s view and opinions about different controversial issues in TV programs. However, this medium has lots of demerits and bad impacts. Government and politically biased organizations often send negative and misleading news. Again young people watch different satellite channels and try to adopt the alien culture which is really harmful for the culture and tradition of a country.

Films are audio-visual representation and can catch the attention of people from different geographical locations, races and cultures. A good film can shape someone’s morality and doctrine and the film-makers with their huge amount of money, are so careful to make their films realistic and eye-absorbing. Every film has a direct or potential message or moral. On the contrary, some films also bring a wrong message to us. For example, protagonists are always smoking in the films and it seems that smoking is a good and smart habit. It causes many younger people imitate them smoking.

In conclusion, I would like to some up that books, televisions and films are the most powerful and effective medias for communicating information.

The graph below shows the demand for electricity in England during typical days in winter and summer. The pie chart shows how electricity is used in an average English home.

The given graphs show the electricity demand in England in a typical day of winter and summer and also show how people used this electricity. According to the first line graph, we can see that, the electricity demand in winter is much higher than the demand in summer in England.

In a typical day the electricity demand in winter season is around 35000 units and it is around 18000 units in summer season. Again the demand of the electricity varies on several hours of the day and the demand from 6:00 to 9:00 am is lesser than the demand in other hours of the day. During the winter the demand is highest from 21:00 to 23:00 and during summer the demand is highest from 13:00 to 14:00 hours.

Based on the pie chart we can conclude that, the room heating and water heating is the main purpose people consume the electricity in England. The demand for washing machine, kettle and ovens consumes around 18% of total electricity consumed and two other categories consume 15% electricity each. These two other categories which consume 30% of total electricity include light, TV, Radio, vacuum cleaner, food mixer and other electric told and devices.

 Happiness is considered very important in life.
Why is it difficult to define?
What factors are important in achieving happiness?

It is true that happiness is a prerequisite to people’s quality of life, although actual definition of happiness seems to be difficult to describe, there are various factors which considered being crucial in acquiring happiness.

It is quite laborious to find out an actual definition for the term HAPPINESS. The reason for this is that happiness means different thing to different people. Most people may have at least one hobby or a treat which could help them to uplift their spirits instantly. While for some people, it might be their job or a career which brings them a sense of fulfillment. At the same time, for others, personal belongings are the paramount of a serene life. To take an example of a web designer, Richard Jackson, who believes that the key element for a pleasurable life is a close relationship. In my case, happiness is when I am taking my time out of a hectic routine to spend a quality time along with my family.

There do seem to be some common needs that we all share in regards to experiencing or achieving pleasure. Firstly, investing in personal relationships can give a broad (long) way to boost up people’s level of happiness. For instance, spending even a fraction of time from a whole day with your children while doing some share activities could help to build up an immense mutual understanding as well as an inner-satisfaction in them, which is a subtle precursor to bring in leveled happiness. Secondly, a prestigious line of work could help to raise people’s contentment by allowing them to have ample amount of wages. As a result, they can entertain themselves with all the basic necessities of life without worrying about any financial distress.

To sum up, due to a nature of happiness it is not that easy to describe it in one specific sentence. We can merely acknowledge several factors which are mandatory to some extent in seeking happiness.

The chart below shows the different levels of post-school qualifications in Australia and the proportion of men and women who held them in1999.

The given bar graph compares the male and female post-school degree qualified persons in Australia for the year 1999. As is presented in the graph, more male achieved their post-school degrees in skilled vocational diploma, Masters Degree, Postgraduate Diploma than female while more female achieved Undergraduate Diploma and Bachelor Degree than their male counterpart.

According to the data given in the chart, Australian male and female who achieved their post-school degrees in 1999 were classified in five categories. Female pot-school qualified surpassed the male in Undergraduate Diploma, Bachelor’s Diploma and in Undergraduate Diploma the percentage of female was 70% compared to the only 35% male. Male were predominating in percentage for the Master’s degree, Postgraduate Diploma and Skilled Vocational Diploma. 90% male completed skilled vocational diploma and remaining 10% was female.

In summary, male completed Vocational Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma and Masters degree more than female did and female outnumbered the male in Undergraduate Diploma, and Bachelor Diploma. Though more female completed their Bachelor Degree, the percentage decreased in Masters Degree level where 60% male completed it.

Creative artist should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

The issue of freedom of creative artist has extremely grown in importance in most countries over the few decades. It is considered that government should not interfere to their work and the artist should be free to do whatever they want. While I accept many artists are sharing their valuable ideas for the tremendous development of this world, I believe some certain area they should be controlled by the rules and regulation.  

Admittedly, the human civilization has approached this sophisticated stage because many creative artists bestow us enormous number of significant ideas and opinions in the form of picture, music or film. As an example, many creative artists like Leonardo Da Vinci had first draw the design of airplane; but, at that time nobody could think that human can fly and everybody thought it was just imagined of his mind. Although it required long time, but it became true that human now can fly. This example makes it clear that the work of artists can lead to immense improvement of humankind. Therefore, many people think that they should be free with their works for the advancement of human being.

On the other hand, there are some vital reasons why the work of artists should be controlled in some certain area. Firstly, most people in this world believe in the God; so the artist should not create such type of acts, which hurt the religion. If this type of activity they make, it may bring colossal embarrassment to the human society. Secondly, the artist should not go against any culture and costume of a country. In this certain field, government can limit the practice of an artist.

In conclusion, the creative artist is indispensable in our society although some artists have trended to draw against our cast, creed, and religion. In my opinion, this tendency may call harmful to our mankind so that the government should control the activity, which can go directly against to our culture and religion.

 The charts below give information about travel to and from the UK, and about the most popular countries for UK residents to visit.

The given diagrams show data on the number of international tourists who travelled the UK and the UK residents who travelled outside UK from 1979 to 1999. The data also presents the countries where UK citizens travelled in 1999. As is observed from the given data, the number of international tourists travelling the UK kept on increasing after 1989 and more UK people travelled outside the UK than the number of tourists travelled the UK.

According to the first line graph, around 10 million international tourists travelled the UK and the number of UK residents travelled outside UK was also just over 10 million. Both of these numbers kept on increasing gradually till 1986 and after that the number of UK citizens travelling outside increased very sharply. The number of tourists the UK got kept on increasing and reached to over 25 million in 1999 while more than 50 million people travelled to other countries from the UK. The number of UK travelers who went to other countries was more than double than the number of people came to the UK for visiting.

The second bar graph shows the countries UK citizens travelled in 1999 and among them France was their most favorite destination where more than 10% tourists travelled in this year. The second most visited country by UK people was Spain where about 8% of total UK tourists travelled. Other countries visited by UK tourists were the USA, Greece and Turkey where less than 5% UK tourists travelled in 1999.

 In many countries, schools have severe problems with student behaviour.
What do you think are the causes of this?
What solutions can you suggest?

Nowadays, schools in various parts of the world report that students tend to have behavioral problems. Unfortunately, this will make it harder for schools to educate students as problematic behaviors are likely to interfere with the education process.
There are some reasons as to why students behave inappropriately. Firstly, the way society works these days affect students’ behavioral patterns. For instance, parents might spend more time at work than at home and as a result, children lack parental guidance, not knowing how they are supposed to behave. This in turn is likely to cause them to have behavioral problems. Secondly, such behaviors might be caused by external influences, such as internet and television. Students, for example, might watch TV shows that use a lot of violence. Therefore, they are likely to imitate in real life by being more aggressive and using more violence. After all, students, especially teenagers, are easily affected by external parties.
In order to counter such problem, teachers should be friendly while still maintaining their professionalism. By being friendly, teachers might be able to understand students’ point of views and thus devise the right strategies to connect with them. This is because students are more likely to listen to teachers if they feel they can relate to the teachers and that the teachers understand them. Furthermore, it is also important to handle students patiently. This is really crucial, since rough treatments might worsen their behaviors or encourage them to play truant. It is therefore wiser to be patient and guide students gradually to be well-behaved rather than using force to do so.
In conclusion, behavioral problems are resulted from the way society works these days (e.g. lack of parental guidance) and external parties, such as bad influences from TV shows. Nevertheless, by understanding students’ views and guiding them patiently, students can gradually change and behave in a more appropriate manner.

The graph below shows the proportion of the population aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three different countries

The given line graph compares the aged people of Sweden, the USA and Japan from 1940 and gives projection till 2040.

As is observed from the line graph, initially in 1940, the proportion of aged people who were over 64 years old was between 5 to 10 percent. This rate kept on increasing in the USA and Sweden while decreased in Japan. After 40 years in 1989, this percentage was around 15% both in Sweden and the USA while it was only 2-3% in Japan. The more the aged people in a country the better the life expectancy and medical improvement and this indicated the improvement in the USA and Sweden while down-grade trend in Japan. But after 2000, the rate of aged people in Japan kept increasing sharply and it is projected that in 2040 the number of aged people would surplus the number in Sweden and the USA though these later two countries would also have more aged people in this coming years they have now. This also forecast the life expectancy and medical advancement in Japan after 2030.

Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

There is an old saying “Give an educated mother and I will give you an educated nation”. This proverb alone emphasizes the issue of women education. Throughout the history men and women both worked hand by hand to build a perfect world and whatever the current world is, has been contributed both by male and female but not one specific gender. As University education is so important for the full bloom of one person’s merit skill and knowledge, there must arise the equal opportunity for both male and female students. They work side by side as friends but not like competitors. If only men go ahead in education, research, arts, history and women remains backward then no goods can be done. So I strongly support the idea of taking same number of male and female students in every level of education as well as in the university level.

The history suggests that men are dominant in numbers in science, arts, engineering, creativity and business sectors. But we cannot deny the contribution of Mother Teresa or madam Merry Currie who has devoted their whole life for the betterment of the world. It is true that if the competition is arranged regardless of gender more male student will be ahead of women. But still Universities should accept equal number of students. If fewer females hold the important sectors of a country naturally women will feel deprived and this will lead them to compete with men.

It is a mother who is much more emotionally attached with their kids and friendlier to kids than fathers. So they help the kids about their study. So the importance of female education in higher level gets priority considering this single issue.

In conclusion Universities should get admitted same number of students from both sex and give the equal opportunity in every level.

The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different age groups and the amount of support they received from employers

The given graphs show the reason why students from different age groups study and also show the support they get from their employers.

According to the first bar graph, people who are under 40 years old mostly study for career while people over 49 years mainly study for their interest. Interestingly for the age group 40 to 49, there number of people who study for career and the number of people who study for interest is same. 80% students under 26 years old continue their study for having a good career while only 10% of this age group does that for subject interest. The percentage of students who study for career decreases with the increase of their age and a opposite pattern can be observed for the percentage of students who study for subject interest rather than career.

Based on the bar graph 2, more than 60% students under 26 years old get support from their employers for their education and this supports includes the time off and monetary supports they get. This percentage reduces with the increase of age and at 30-39 age group 32% get the support from the employers. After that the employers’ support for their employees’ education increases and reaches to 45% for the over 49 year’s age group.

In summary, most young people continue their study to have a career and as they grow up, their main reason of study becomes subject interest and the employees less than 30 years of age and over 49 years of age  get more support from their employers than other age group.

 In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies

It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a break from studying after graduating from high school. This trend is not restricted to rich students who have the money to travel, but is also evident among poorer students who choose to work and become economically independent for a period of time.

The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or traveling to other places have a broader view of life and better personal resources to draw on. They tend to be more independent, which is a very important factor in academic study and research, as well as giving them an advantage in terms of coping with the challenges of student life.

However, there are certainly dangers in taking time off at that important age. Young adults may end up never returning to their studies or finding it difficult to re-adapt to an academic environment. They may think that it is better to continue in a particular job, or to do something completely different from a university course. But overall, I think this is less likely today, when academic qualifications are essential for getting a reasonable career.

My view is that young people should be encouraged to broaden their horizons. That is the best way for them to get a clear perspective of what they are hoping to do with their lives and why. Students with such a perspective are usually the most effective and motivated ones and taking a year off may be the best way to gain this.

The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. A new supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket.

The given map shows two possible locations for the planned supermarket in the Garsdon city. As is presented in the illustration, the city has a population of more than 65 thousand and the two possible locations for the supermarket are near Hindon and in the middle of the industrial area.

According to the map, the railway surrounds the city and intersects the city almost in the middle. There are main roads for transportation and countryside surrounds the main housings and industries of the city. The housing of the city is mainly in the North and South sides of the city and the town center is in the middle of the industrial area. The first possible location for the planned supermarket is near the Hindon area where almost ten thousand inhabitants live and the location is in the north-west corner. This location would be ideal for the Hindon people for shopping but the people of Crandon and Brandon, which have great more population, would be far away from this supermarket. The second possible location which is almost in the center of the city would be surrounded by industrial zones and housings in North and South sides of the city. This would be an ideal place as it would connect all the shoppers in the three parts of the city. Since the railway passes near this location, this would be a better place in terms of communication as well.

In summary, the second location (S2) would be a better place for the supermarket between the possible two locations though the first location would be advantageous for the people of Hindon area and would be out of crowd.

Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged. Others believe that children who are taught to co-operate rather than compete become more useful adults.

There are some People who think that competition in children should be made, also others believe that children who are taught to co-operate as well as become more useful adults. There are advantages and disadvantages for both of the arguments.
To begin with, what is good if a sense of competition m children is made? They could develop themselves more and more as they learn and study a lot to win from the competition. To prove this, in Korea, it is popular – even common now – to have a tutor who comes to student’s house to teach extra pieces of study with paying a lot of money. They learn faster than what they learn at school. Furthermore, during the vacations, students study abroad to learn English for a month instead of revises school work. If they have experiments such as study abroad, it is one of the greatest plus point to go to the famous well-known high-school. Moreover, there are four big school exam and two national examinations to test students’ level of studies. Generally, only the highest 40% can go to the good quaternary high schools and colleges. Children learn as much as they can, to win the competition to obtain good quality schools.
On the other hand, as they are busy to enter the schools and study individually with their own tutors, there are problems. They become selfish. They become careless and don’t help others a lot if it is about studies. There will be no co-operations for them. Then, why are there companies for many people to work in? Each of them are clever, however, there are weak parts and strong parts for each person. To co-operate is to improve this part. People talk and listen to what others thinking of and learn. That could also be a great opportunity to learn instead of learning alone with one teacher.
In conclusion, I strongly agree with that children should be taught to co-operate rather than compete. Nobody is perfect. People learn together, work together to develop each other. Therefore, I want parents and teachers to educate children concentrating on co-operation, not compete and ranking them.

The table below gives information about the underground railway systems in six cities.

The given table shows data on underground railway system of six cities namely London, Paris, Tokyo, Washington DC, Kyoto and Los Angeles and compares these rail stations opening date, route and passengers number. As is observed from the given data, London underground railway system was established before other railway systems of other cities and they have the largest route for this rail road. But Tokyo railway system has the highest number of passengers per year among the given cities.

London railway system was established in 1863, which makes it the oldest underground railway system and it has more than 390 km of route which is also the largest route among these six cities. Each year more than 700 million passengers use these underground railway stations of London. Paris underground railway system was started in 1900 and it has almost 200 km route with more than 1190 million of passengers. Again Tokyo underground railway system has the largest passengers (more than 1900 millions) and it was established in 1927 that has 155 km of route. Kyoto underground railway system was opened in 1981 and it has the smallest route of 11 km and least passengers (45 millions) use this system among the mentioned six cities. Washington Dc and Los Angeles underground railway system were established in 1976 and 2001 with comparatively smaller routes and few passengers. The Los Angeles underground railways system is the latest railway system in terms of the date it was opened and has second smallest number of route (28 km) and passengers (50 millions).

In conclusion, the oldest underground railway system is in London and Tokyo has the largest number of passengers of their underground railway system. 

Research indicates that the characteristics we are born with have much more influence on our personality and development than any experiences we may have in our life. Which do you consider to be the major influence?

In today’s modern world, numerous researches have been conducted around the globe in order to improve the personality and the development of an individual. There is one recent research which has clearly shown that the personality and development of a person are highly likely to depend on the characteristics that they are born with as compared to other experiences in their life. However, I believe experiences of a person will have a greater impact on one’s personality and development.

Undoubtedly, if we could utilize the experience we gain from working or travelling abroad, we would be more mature and more open-minded. Whenever we arrive in a new place, we can learn the cultures and traditions from the locals in order to acquire more information about the lifestyles of others and eventually become more knowledgeable. Besides, we may learn how to respect and not to criticize the customs of other races which may be slightly or totally different from ours. By doing so, we can actually get benefited by being able to look at the problems from a various perspective.

We may also become more self-independent than others if we live in a harsh environment when we were young. To illustrate, in China, many children have to sacrifice their studies and come out to work since they were small. They are proved to have the ability to make more mature decisions on their own in a research conducted in China between those who are affluent and those who live in poverty. Moreover, people who face a lot of hardships in their lives will have a detailed plan of what to do next. For instance, they will organize their expenditure well, which in other words, they will not spend money on unnecessarily things, especially those luxurious items. Therefore, it is apparent that experiences gained from various field in their lives have a huge influence on one’s personality and development.

In conclusion, I am of the opinion that life experience has major consequences on our personalities and developments than the characteristics that we are born with. We will be able to think from different perspectives and make wise decisions if we use the experiences that we gained in our daily live.

The graph and table below give information about water use worldwide and water consumption in two different countries.

The graph shows how the amount of water used worldwide changed between 1900 and 2000 and water consumptions of two countries compared to their population.

Throughout the century, the largest quantity of water was used for agricultural Purposes, and this increased dramatically from about 500 km³ to around 3,000 km³ in the year 2000. Water used in the industrial and domestic sectors also increased, but consumption was minimal until mid-century. From 1950 onwards, industrial use grew steadily to just over 1,000 km³, while domestic use rose more slowly to only 300 km³, both far below the levels of consumption by agriculture.

The table illustrates the differences in agriculture consumption in some areas of the world by contrasting the amount of irrigated land in Brazil (26,500 km³) with that in the D.R.C. (100 km²). This means that a huge amount of water is used in agriculture in Brazil, and this is reflected in the figures for water consumption per person: 359 m³ compared with only 8 m³ in the Congo. With a population of 176 million, the figures for Brazil indicate how high agriculture water consumption can be in some countries.

Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and not the real needs of the society in which they are sold.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Today, with significant increase of the number of producers for various goods, not only do buyers have difficulty choosing favorable products but also competition between producers to persuade consumers has been become hard and serious. Therefore advertisement play a key role in today’s marketing so that some people believe that power of advertisement is the major incentive for marked growth of buying popular consumer products and necessary needs of buyers is not very important. I agree with this opinion to some extent but I think the main reason for these increase of sale is people’s necessity not advertisement.

On the one hand, producers apply various methods to market their products for consumers. These days, if you see carefully around yourself, you will face tempting advertising slogan on billboard on streets, on different types of media that surround you and want to induce you to choose their goods. Companies spend a great deal of money advertising the products so that they use celebrity and famous people to bring their favors into their stories. These methods have been successful in some cases especially for affluent people who want to be in fashion and able to afford the luxurious goods such as house, cars and jewelry. So this success is held in a limited circle.

On the other hand, intensive growth of sales of people’s main consumer products is as a result of increasing their needs to them. The role of advertisement in this area is confined to help buyer choose the best products and not persuade them to buy unnecessary goods. When it comes to vital goods of living, people whether rich or poor do not pay attention to advertising messages that how much or many of these goods they buy.

In conclusion, I think that is true the power of advertisement can make people buy their products but this power is limited to rich people and also unnecessary consumer goods so that the real needs of the society dictate the rate of sales.

 The table below gives information about changes in modes of travel in England between 1985 and 2000

The given table illustrates how mode of travel changed in England between 1985 and 2000. Generally, comparing to 1985, English travelled more each year, 6475 miles for each person.

Cars were by far the most popular mode of travel in both years in England. In 1985, the average distance travelled by English was 3,199 miles, and 4806 miles in 2000. On the other hand, we can see immediately that taxi was the least popular mode for travel. Although the traveling distance in 2000 was above three times as long as in 1985, only 42 miles was travelled per person this year, which was almost same for the bicycle. No significant changes happened to some modes of travels, like walking, bicycle and other modes between 1985 and 2000. According to the table, in 2000 local bus was used less than in 1985. Only 274 miles were travelled in 2000, which was 55 miles less than in 1985. In contrast, long distance bus becomes more popular. Each person travelled 124 miles by long distance bus in 2000 while only 54 miles in 1985.

In conclusion, in England, people travelled more distance in 2000 than in 1985. It is obvious that cars were the most popular mode for travelling.

Successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Nowadays, sports professionals are obtaining more attention among people from all over the world. Media is one of the main reasons that make a person to get fame in no time. So the sports persons are being treated like celebrities worldwide. To give a piece of one’s mind, talented sports persons should be compensated with more pay.

To be at logger heads, some might feel this suggestion is unfair. It is a fact that, not all the sports stars are talented than the people who works in other esteemed professions such as doctors, scientists and politicians. They play an important role in the growth of their nation. Whereas sports persons play for themselves by using their country’s name only as a label, sometimes they bring success and fame for the whole nation. Because of media, people give keen attention to sports celebrities and treat other professions scornfully.

In an honor bound, those who have mere talents must be paid with huge amount of money. It is indeed that not all sports persons are successful in their careers. People who have audacity and hardworking nature are the one who relish with victory. Even though they play for their personal goal, achievements they make in sports also make the nation very proud. Considering this reason, it is fully justified to let a sports person to earn great deal of money.

To conclude, the sports professionals with suffice tendency to accomplish something in their career are justified to acquire huge earnings. It clearly depicts that, sports professions has more value than other essential professions around the world.

The diagrams below show the life cycle of the silkworm and the stages in the production of silk cloth.

The two given pictures describe the life cycle of silkworm and also illustrate the procedure of silk cloth production.

As is presented in the first picture lifecycle of silkworm begins with eggs laid by mother worm. Silkworm eggs transform into shape of silkworm larva after around 10 days. Then the second process starts, and in this stage larva usually eat leaves like mulberry leaves in order to grow up.

Food process lasts 4 to 6 weeks. Larva generates silk threads shells in the end of second stage. Third stage begins when silk thread shells create cocoon, this process usually lasts for 3 to 8 days. In final stage cocoons transform into moth after 16 days. And moths grow up and recycle whole procedure step by step.

As is observed from second picture, which describes the producing of silk cloth from silk worm, total stages of silk cloth production are five. Initially in first stage silk thread shells are selected and boiled into hot water. Shells are unwinded properly and unwinded shells are exactly 300 to 900m long. Then threads are twisted and dyed in dyer. And finally those silks are weaved and again dyed.

The process of twist and dry, weave and dry possibly repeated if it is necessary to produce high quality silk cloth.

Some people believe that visitors to other countries should follow local customs and behaviour. Others disagree and think that the host country should welcome cultural differences.

It is noticeable that people tend to travel more frequently these days than they used to do in the past. While I agree that the travellers should follow the host country’s traditions and cultures, I also think that the host country should welcome cultural differences.

On one hand, travellers should adapt to the culture of their host country and feel happy with the idea of trying new things. Nowadays, people not only consider travelling as a way to relax but also they think it is a chance for self-improvement and exploring the world. Travelling is a good opportunity to try new things such as traditional cuisine, music and customs and those who just travel to view landscapes waste a perfect chance to learn something new. For example, people who have visited places like India, Egypt or China have been very excited when they tried the local food or wore the traditional dress. An experience like this broadens people’s horizons and enriches their knowledge.

On the other hand, for many reasons the host country should accept and understand the different backgrounds of tourists. Firstly, for many visitors it would be difficult to follow the host culture and customs because these usually different than their own and in some cases they may even be incompatible with their beliefs and morals. For example, Indian or Arabs who go to European countries may find it difficult to get used to the European taste in food because it does not contain as much spices as they have in their food. In addition if travellers feel they are welcomed in the new country despite of the cultural differences they will feel more comfortable to visit this place again.

In conclusion, I believe that it could be beneficial for travellers to get exposed to different cultures and customs. However, tourist destinations should be opened to the cultural diversity of its newcomers.

The charts below give information about USA marriage and divorce rates between 1970 and 2000 and the marital status of adult Americans in two of the years.

The first chart illustrates the change in the number of marriages and divorces in the US over a 30-year period from 1970. The second chart compares the proportion of American adults’ different marital statuses in two years, 1970 and 2000.

Overall, there was a clear downward trend of people getting married in the US. Although a majority of adult Americans were married in both recorded years, there was a quite higher percentage of people staying single in 2000.

From 1970 to 1980, 2.5 million marriages were registered in America; however, this number gradually decreased to 2 million by the year 2000. In contrast, the number of divorces filed was around 1 million in 1970 and then reached a peak at almost 1.5 million a decade later. There had been since then less divorces and the figure fell back to 1 million in 2000, exactly 50% of that of the marriages in the same year.

The percentage of married American adults dropped from 70% in 1970 to around 60% in 2000. Similarly, there was a marginal decrease in the proportion of widowed people. The figures for never married people and divorced ones experienced a slight rise, by around 8% for each category.

Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoiding change. Others, however, think that change is always a good thing

There are arguments that individuals should be refrained from doing new things and must stick to traditional methods. However, some people are convinced that individuals need to venture into some noble experiences in life. In my opinion, I would argue that alterations in some activities and practices are essential to achieve progress and success.    
Primarily, it can never be denied that some people may become comfortable to the routine practices in life, which they are more accustomed. Clearly, people will not need to learn new things as they are already more cognizant about the activities that they habitually perform. For instance, in this modern era, the seniority group will find it confusing to read newspapers in an electronic tablet due to the fact that they are not aware of its new features and the proper operation of the gadget. For these reasons, the geriatric individuals do not need to learn the settings and the high technology applications as it will take them a long period of time to adapt this product of technology.
However, it can be argued that the life of people will become more adventurous if they opt to new trends and experiences. As can be expected, the progress and success in life are often achieved when a person tries to explore new ideas and practices, which might be beneficial for the improvement of his or her life. To illustrate, a businessman, who have experienced failures in his or her business, will resort to new strategies in order to make the business more firm and highly profitable. This can be done by abandoning the old-fashioned styles and techniques while accepting the modern ways, which could make the people’s lives more favorable. The new idea, new way of life and changes to the old way life often bring new opportunities to people and getting adapted to the changes is the primary means of survivals and advancement.

In conclusion, there is a heated argument whether people must remain to the conservative ways of life or to resort to modern trends. However, I personally believe that the ideology of success can be reached if people will embrace the new-fangled ways of living in the society.

The table below gives information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries in 2002.

The given table represents amount spent by consumers of five different countries on different categories of items in year 2002. As is presented in chart people of Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and finally Turkey consumed specific amount on different items respectively as mentioned different items like food and tobacco whereas clothing and footwear and finally leisure and education.

Let’s analyse the data given table in detail. As is observed Turkey consumed excessive amount on food and tobacco which constitutes highest percentage by 32.14%.Whereas Ireland was second top country which consumed significant high amount on food and tobacco (28.9%) while Italy, Spain and Sweden spent higher than 15% respectively. On the other hand, all countries consumed fewer amounts on clothing and footwear. As is observed, 9% was the highest amount consumed on cloths & footwear by Italy consumers whereas Ireland, Spain, Sweden and finally Turkey expenditures were less than 5%.

Interestingly Turkey was giving priority to leisure and education and spending significant higher percentage (4.35%) while at the same time people of Ireland was not taking interest to consume on leisure and education and spending amount on small extent by 2.21%.

In conclusion, Turkey gave priority to food and tobacco whereas Italy spent substantial amount on clothing and footwear and lastly Turkish gave priority to education and leisure and spent 4.35%.

It is generally believed that some people are born with certain talents, for instance for sport or music, and others are not. However, It is sometimes claimed that any child can be taught to become a good sports person or musician.

These days a talent hunt shows are very popular in India. Some people have quite unique talents which are difficult to imagine. For example, a person can create a shadow of different faces of the freedom fighters of India by just using his two hands. It is a debatable topic whether such talents are learned or it is God gifted.

Few people are born with a talent. For instance, a two years old child can play multiple drums parallel like a professional musician. I am confident that a child cannot learn such skills at the age of two. Sometimes you inherit such skills from your ancestors. For instance, it is not surprising if a great singer’s son can also sing very well.
On the other hand we have a considerable amount of people who are different from their family. For example, a golf world champion belongs to the wrestler’s family. A champion confirmed that his father wanted him to be different than his family. With rigorous training he became would champion at the age of nine. If talent is acquired only by birth than a coaching concept would not have been accepted so widely.
It is said that China won 15 medals in one of the Olympic Games. After that the government started a training program nationwide where kids are being trained in different sports. In two decades China won 15 medals and became number one in that Olympic game.
I truly believe that talent can be learned by passion and dedication. We would not have got some of the greatest talent in India like Lata Mangeshkar and Sachin Tendulkar if they would have not continued trying after initial failures. If talent is acquired by birth then Mr. Amitabh Bachchan would have stopped the acting after continuous nice flop films in the starting of his career, thinking he does not have the acting skill by birth.

The graph below shows the consumption of fish and some different kinds of meat
in a European country between 1979 and 2004.

The given line graph compares the fish and meat consumptions by the people of a European country from 1979 to 2004.

As is presented in the graph, the consumption of chicken increased over the time while meats of different types were more preferred by people in the given European country than the fishes.

According to the graph, more than 200 grams of beef was consumed daily by each person initially in 1979. In this year, each person on an average ate 150 grams of chicken and lambs while the consumption was just over 50 grams in this year. Over time people preferred chicken and the consumption kept on increasing and reached to over 250 grams per day by each person. The consumption of beef, lamb decreased over time and finally in 2004 the average consumption of these two meat types decreased to around 100 grams per person in a day. The amount consumed for fish remained almost same throughout the years and slightly decreased over time.

In summary, people started consuming more chicken than beef and lamb and the fish consumption remained almost same.

 Some people believe that there should be fixed punishment for each type of crime. Others, however, argue that the circumstances of an individual crime, and the motivation for committing it, should always be taken into account when deciding on the punishment.

In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of crimes being committed. Many people are of the opinion that these wrong-doings should be classified categorically. However, I believe that each offence should be looked upon in a subjective manner, taking into account the nature and severity of these unlawful activities.

Giving a fixed punishment would definitely make court proceedings a lot quicker. This is because the judges would not need to decide what type of punishment criminals would deserve as it would have been already decided for them. However, this is an unfair practice as some of the criminals may not deserve the punishments given to them. For example, a person robbing a convenient store will not deserve the same punishment as a person robbing a bank because the degree of the crime is not as severe as the latter.

On the other hand, deciding a crime according to the situation and motive of it make perfect sense as it would ensure that the lawbreaker is given a fair trial and the right punishment is handed down to him. For instance, a mentally ill person who commits a murder would be judged accordingly, instead of being grouped into the same category of all the other type of murderers. This, therefore, will make the trial balance and fair.

In conclusion, my opinion is that the punishment for a crime should be made up based on all the factors leading up to the unlawful action rather than providing judgment based on the classification of crimes into types.

The chart below shows information about changes in average house prices in five different cities between 1990 and 2002 compared with the average house prices in 1989.

The bar chart depicts the average house prices in five different cities between 1990 and 2002 compared with the prices of year 1989, a period of 12 years. Overall, it can be seen that, the average house prices of London was shown fluctuating throughout the year.

In details, the percentage of house prices in New York in between the year 1990 -1995 was accounted just 5 percent in negative direction. However, the same percentage in New York was in positive side between 1996 – 2002. Similarly, the average house prices of London and Tokyo (Japan) was presented in similar percentage approximately7 percent in negative in 1990-1995 where the percentage of London peaks at highest position at 13 percent in 1996-2002 and Tokyo city house price was still observed in negative side at 5 percent .

The percentage change in average house price of Madrid (Spain) was only 1 percent in previous 6 years but it dramatically increased 4 times in next following year. In 1990-1995 the average house price of Frankfurt (Germany) was only 2 percent but it was interesting that it declines and reached the same percentage as Madrid (Spain) at 1 percent.

As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual well-being.
What factors contribute to job satisfaction?
How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

It is believed most of the adults’ lives are spent on their workplace, therefore many people think that job satisfaction is an essential matter for them. There are various factors that affect job satisfaction and the following essay will discuss in details about some of the factors, and whether that the factors are realistic or not.

There are some points that influence job satisfaction. Firstly, many employees believe that they are satisfied with their careers since the tasks are in accordance with their passions. They think that the work that they are currently doing is aligned with their talents and they are performing well. Secondly, some employees believe that they would be satisfied with their jobs, if they are paid with the expected compensation and benefits. They are being realistic that salary is also a trigger to their work performance. And lastly but not least, a lot of people believe that conductive working environment would also effect on the job satisfaction.

Some people are idealistic persons and they are willing to work hard in the task that is in accordance with their talent. This kind of thought is realistic since working is not just being paid, but it should also be meaningful and satisfying. As for the compensation and benefit, it is a fact that human kinds are never satisfied with their earning. The idea that employees would be satisfied with their jobs if they are paid high is just not realistic. Salary would only satisfy them for a certain amount of time and after that they will ask for more. And as for the conductive working environment, it would be difficult to find the ideal environment. Every workplace has its owned unique culture and style; therefore the workers should adapt and adjust themselves to the working environment.

In conclusion, it is true that adults are spending a lot of their time at work, therefore jobs satisfaction is an important thing. There are several factors that contribute to job satisfaction, but some are realistic while others are just not.

 The pie charts below show units of electricity production by fuel source in Australia and France in 1980 and 2000.

The given pie charts show data on the electricity production from fuel sources in Australia and in France in 1980 and 2000. As is observed from the pie charts, coal was the main source for electricity production in Australia while France used the Nuclear Power more in recent years to produce their electricity demand.

According the given data, Australia produced 100 units of electricity in 1980 and 170 units in 2000 while the production in France was 90 units and doubled in the year 2000.
 In Australia coal was the main source of electricity production and half of the total electricity produced came from coal in 1980. Natural gas and hydro power contributed of producing 20 units of electricity while remaining 10 units was produced from oil. The dependency on coal increased in 2000 for electricity production while oil and natural gases were very minimally used for electricity production. Nuclear power was not used in Australia as source for producing electricity.

On the contrary, In France natural gas and coal together produced half of the electricity in 1980. The use of nuclear power increased significantly in France in 2000 amounting 126 units in this year compared to the 15 units 20 years back.  

 Some people think that universities should provide graduates with the knowledge and skills needed in the workplace. Others think that the true function of a university should be to give access to knowledge for its own sake, regardless of whether the course is useful to an employer.
What, in your opinion, should be the main function of a university?

The primary purpose of tertiary education is to prepare graduates for their future career. While thousands of people would enroll for the sake of acquiring general knowledge and skills which will make them competitive on the job market, there is a portion of them who would expect to obtain the specific qualifications only for their dream job. Therefore, I strongly believe that university should organize their courses’ programs in order to provide future employees with all the skill sharpening professional training for their specific occupation.

One compelling reason for this is that all the contemporary occupations nowadays are task specific which makes it a necessity for workers to be able to comply with every job requirement. Once they graduate they are expected to take over all the responsibilities their job needs them to do, have the know-how, as well as the expertise to carry out all the arduous and demanding tasks. For instance, as soon as I graduated at the Faculty of Philology I had to take a part-time teaching job. I was overwhelmed with all the expectations my employer had in everyday practice, whereas there was no need at all of all the theory I had mastered throughout my studies.

On the other hand, it is beyond doubt that most of the jobs would require employees to do a lot of multi-tasking and to be capable of meeting deadlines while conducting project work. Apparently, big companies would prefer to employ a person well-equipped with all the necessary knowledge related to several positions within their range, instead of over-staffing. Notwithstanding the competitiveness among businesses, there is always a huge demand for the top notch professionals within one sector. This will be possible, only and only if universities raise their standards and provide broad education and practice for their students.

In conclusion, I would maintain that tertiary education should be more content-specific and ensure the fastest and highest quality for their graduates. Not only will professionals be able to use their university knowledge as a catalyst towards their career, but they will be able to make a living out of it for a lifetime.

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