• 2019年6月9日
  • 2022年5月20日
  • 692回
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Gamit ang paraan upang kumita ng pera sa libreng oras?Alam mo ba ang paraan upang kumita ng pera na gamit ang Ingles?Alam mo ba ang paraan upang magturo ng Ingles sa iyong bahay na librengsa oras na pinili ng iyong sarili at kumita ng pera? Ang taong nagsasabing marami siyang pera isara ang page na ito, pakiusap.

1.The charts below show the results of a survey of adult education.The first chart shows the reasons why adults decide to study. The pie chartshows how people think the costs of adult education should be shared.

The figuresillustrate the result of an opinion survey about the reason why adult peoplechoose to study and how tuition costs should be funded. It is clear that basedon the survey result, the two main reasons why adults have continued theirstudy are due to they are interested with the subject and to obtain the degree.It is also noticed that the survey also shown that most of the education costshould be funded by individuals themselves.

It can beseen that the two main purposes why adult continue their study are because theyinterested with the program and to obtain the qualification, as these tworeasons result reached 40% and 38% respectively. Meanwhile, the percentages ofthe survey for reasons of helpful for their current job, improving prospect andpromotion, and that they like studying were in the range between 22% and 20%.As for figures of those who study for the purpose of changing jobs and to meetnew people, they were below 15% each.

As for thesurvey result of the education cost, it is obvious that 40% of the cost shouldbecome the burden of the respective person themselves. Then 35% should beprovided by the employer and 25% from the taxpayer.

2.There are many different types of music in the world today. What dowe need music? Is the traditional music of a country more important than theinternational music that is heard everywhere nowadays?

Kindsof music people listen nowadays are of different tastes and types. Forinstance, modern international pop and rap music as well as classicaltraditional country songs all vary from each other and people listen to themwith great interests. This is because music has been part of our daily liveseven in the ancient times. In this essay, reasons on why music is necessary inevery Filipino people’s lives and the importance of the Philippine traditionalfolk music over foreign songs that young Filipinos and Filipinas always hearwill be discussed.

Music is a vital part in every Filipinos’ lives. Firstly, Philippine folksconsidered it to be one of the most popular and ancient modes of humanexpressions. It features largely in all histories and all cultures and indeedhas been one of the main ways of passing on cultural traditions to newgenerations of the country. Secondly, because of this, many people view musicas a positive influence for the societies. This influence on individuals iswholly beneficial as it is a long-established way of communicating and helpingus understand the whole range of human emotion and experience in a morespiritual language than words can represent.

However, the classical music traditions of the Philippines are not necessarilypart of the music many Filipinos and Filipinas experience today. In the modernworld today, most of the country’s young people constantly exposed themselvesto loud modern foreign songs as a result of globalization via the Internet. ButI think that it is more important for young people of the country to learntraditional music to enable them to know the origins of our Philippineancestors.

In conclusion, I think that we need traditional music because it is an integralpart of human expression that we cannot really separate from our lives even ifthere are various evolution of modern music we tend to listen everyday throughthe web nowadays such as American rap songs and Korean popmusic.   

3.Thediagram below shows how the Australian Bureau of Meteorology collectsup-to-the-minute information on the weather in order to produce reliableforecasts. write a report for a university lecturer describing the informationshown below.

Thegiven diagram shows how the weather information is collected by AustralianBureau of Meteorology to provide accurate and updated weather forecasting. Asis observed from the given illustration, the weather information collection isdone via satellites, radars and drifting buoys and then analyzed beforebroadcasting them to the public.

As is presented in the diagram, the weather information is collected usingthree different types of sources namely, satellites, radars and drifting buoys.The raw data collected from satellites is basically satellite photos whileradar information are observed from the radar screens and the synoptic chartsare yielded from the drifting buoys and these three types of data are fed in acomputer system to analyze and prepare the weather news for broadcasting.
After than the weather news is broadcasted in different public media liketelevisions, radios and telephones. The final information regarding the weatheris provided to the public via TV news, radio broadcasting and as recordedannouncement in devices like telephones. 

4.Should wealthy nation be required to share their wealth among poorernations by providing such things as food and education ?Or is it theresponsibility of the government of poorer nation to look after theirthemselves?

Althoughthere is wide disparity in the resources  available to the people livingin different countries, but,  still I would argue that the governmentshould be accountable for fulfilling its citizens day to day needs.

It is imperative that the government ineach country is held responsible for providing its citizen basic needs.Firstly, if help is always at hand, some governments may not put in all theirefforts to meet both hands, while, few others are going an extra mile to caterfor their own as well as the other nations demand. Poor nation can borrow moneyfrom world bank to set up , for instance , short scale industries to createemployment for its people and  boost the economy in long run. Variousother steps can always be taken by venturing in trade and commerce for well-being of the nation.

Secondly, it may seem unfair to thecitizens of the nation providing support that the taxes paid by them for thedevelopment of their own nation are being used towards others. Furthermore, itis also a herculean task to categorize all the nations into rich and poor, andthen to select a criteria to decide the priority among nations seeking help.Despite all that, we all should be ready to offer help to a nation in times ofcrisis that arise due  to unforeseen circumstances, for instance , floods,earthquake, hurricanes.

In conclusion, the common needs of aman should be looked after by the ruling government he chose for himself whilein times of calamities, we all should stand united for each other.

5.The chart below shows the amount of money perweek spent on fast foods in Britain. The graph shows trends in consumption offast foods. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the informationshown below.

The imagesbelow illustrate the fast food consumption in Britain.

The chartillustrates how much money is spent on fast food every week, and the graphdescribes the consumption of fast food between 1970 and 1990.

A personwith high income consumes about 40 hamburgers per week, while for average it isbetween 30 and 35, and for low income it is only 15. However, the consumptionof fish and chips is a little over 15 for a person with higher income, but foran average person it is around 20 and for a poorer one it is between those two.Pizza seems to be consumed the least by all, about 20 by a wealthy, 10 by anaverage and around 7 by a poor consumer.

The graphshows that the most increased product consumption is seen among the hamburgersover the 20 years, going from 20 grams to over 500. Pizza follows, withincreasing from about 30 to around 300 grams, while we can see that fish andchips consumption has descended between 1970-1985 (from 300 to 200 grams), andslightly increased again during the last 5 years hitting its maximum at around230 grams.

6.News editors decide what to broadcast ontelevision and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influencethese decisions? Do we become used to bad news? Would be better if more goodnews was reported?

In today’smodern world, a growing amount of news and information on television ornewspapers have considerably influenced the public. Besides, what factors areimpacted on reporting information on news media is an issue many people feelstrongly about. This essay will discuss various influences as well asassociated with phenomenon above.

As far as Iam concerned, there is a wide range of factor accounting for publishing newsand broadcasts. The most noticeable, I believe, is that aiming at a highaudience rating so as to maximize profits. This leads to pursuing theincreasingly diverse needs of viewers from all walks of life in order tosatisfy and cater for them. Another contributory factor is that for manycountries, news editors have to succumb to political pressure, distorting factsand misleading the public. To put it another way, they are controlled entirelyby powerful political parties and enjoined to disregard the truth. This isparticularly true in many undemocratic countries like Chinese, North Korea, andVietnams where information is seriously censored and even disseminatedpolitical ideals to guide public opinions.

Moreover,living in the information era, people are bombarded with daily amount of news,including good and bad news, form multiple media. Today’s coverage and pressmight sometimes be less trustworthy mainly because it often exaggerates thelevel of the real information, in order to boost the attention of the desiredaudiences. Furthermore, some media companies use the stories of people’sprivate life, seductive images and violent or obscene contents to appealviewers, especially teenagers. It means that their thoughts and behaviors mightbe changed and shows a tendency to hatred, violence, jealousy, and even copycatphenomenon. However, the role of news media in reporting good news, such assomeone’s achievement and humane stories, should be acknowledged. That willmake quicker progress toward society better.

Inconclusion, what today’s news and information on media we receive is influencedby some main factors as hooking viewers, increasing profits, and obeyingpolitical regulations. Besides, the news media can have a double-edged impacton society by good and bad news. By doing so, we can ensure that choosinginformation carefully before reading and watching is indispensible to us.

7.Chorleywood is a village near London whosepopulation has increased steadily since the middle of the nineteenth century.The map below shows the development of the village.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the development of thevillage.

The givendiagram shows the development done in Chorleywood village of London from 1868to 1994. As is presented in the diagram, the development in this village hadbeen done in different times and much of these developments were done in 1970sto 1994 while the roads and railroads were built earlier. According to thediagram, the main road of Chorleywood village was built prior to the motorwayand railroads. The Motor road was established in 1970 while the railway wasbuilt in 1909.

Before 1900, only a portion of the village was developed and later (Between1883 to 1922) the station was built and some development works were finished.The area near the station was then developed and during the end of this developmentthe motorway was completed. Later after 1970s the development process seemedaccelerated and many areas of the village came under the development processand at the beginning of the 1900, the railway was established.

The land roads including the motorway, roads and railroads of this villageconnects almost all of the parts of the city and the development had been donemostly based on the establishment of the transportation systems. The park andgold course is in the middle of the village and makes the central place of thevillage. will be to have several careers orways of earning money and further The idea of having a single career isbecoming an old fashioned one. The new education will be something thatcontinues throughout life.

It isbelieved that focusing on a single career is out of date these days. The newtrend is that people should have several kinds of occupations in their life,and they should never stop learning. The following essay will explain indetails about why people should have several careers in their life and why theyshould continue their education till the end.

It is a factthat in the old days, most of the people were loyal to their company, focusedon their occupations and stayed there until they retired. However, some peoplebelieved that the act is old fashioned and people should have various kind ofexperiences in their life. Having different kinds of working experiences is aprecious asset, since people could bring innovative idea from their previous companyand implement it in their current workplace. Besides that, to become a generalleader, people should have had experiences in different types of workingfunctions. For example, a Managing Director manages the company in overall, andit would be best if he had experienced in the field of Finance, Production,Human Resources and Sales.

Furthermore,it is undeniable that continuous education is an essential thing these days.People need to update with the current condition since economy, informationtechnology and science develop rapidly. Those who are not following the latestinformation and regulations will face difficulties in their careers. Forinstance, people who work in the Information technology sector should updatethemselves with the latest type of antivirus software, since many new viruseswhich are threatening the networks these days. Those who fail to update theirsoftware will face serious problems in their database.

Inconclusion, I personally believe that having different types of works in lifeis a positive thing and bring a lot of benefits to the person’s career, and itis important for people to study or learn throughout their life as the worldnever stop to develop.

9.Thetable below shows the consumer durables(telephone, refrigerator,etc) owned inbritain from 1972 to 1983.

Writea report for a university lecturer describing th information shown below.

The givenpresentation shows data on the number of different consumer durables owned byBritish people from 1972 to 1983 and compares the percent of people use thosedevices during the years.

As is observed from the given data, 33% households had central heating machinesinitially in 1972 and the percentage increased each year and reached to 64% in1983, which shows that the central heating machine users almost doubled in 12years. Again, Television was the most common household equipment with 93%households had them. This ration reached to 98 percent with slight increaseyear by year. However, Video was introduced a later time as no data is givenfor this equipment except 1983 when only 18% houses had them. Then Vacuumcleaner, refrigerator and washing machines were three most popular householdappliances after TV which was owned by 70% house owners in 1972 and thepercentages increased to over 90 after 10 years. Interestingly, dishwasher wasvery less popular as only 3% houses had them initially in 1978 and their user’spercentages reached to only 5 in 1983. Finally, the percentage of houses thathad telephones was only 42% but with their popularity this percentage reachedto 77 after 12 years.

In conclusion, the television was the most popular consumer durable whiledishwasher was the least common type of durables the British people had duringthe years 1972 to 1983. Vacuum cleaner, refrigerator and washing machine werethree other popular consumers’ durables for the given period in Britain.

10“Fatherhood ought to be emphasised asmuch as motherhood. The idea that women are solely responsible for decidingwhether or not to have babies leads on to the idea that they are alsoresponsible for bringing the children up.”

For nine toten months, a woman endures the drastic physiological and emotional changesthat pregnancy brings about. Because of this, a woman has the greatest right todecide on whether she will have a child or not. An ideology exists that becausewomen take full responsibility on decisions about child bearing, she also isresponsible for rearing the child. I believe that this idea is absolutelyfaulty.

Firstly, decisions on child bearing may be greatly affected by the woman’schoice. However, other factors are also considered such as a couple’s financialability to support a child’s growth. Aside from that, parenthood is a sharedresponsibility. A father’s role is not limited to sperm donation, but alsoincludes changing diapers in the middle of the night. Also, a father shouldalways be involved in child rearing because there are activities that are bestsuited to be done by a father figure, such as bringing the child to a sportsevent. Consequently, a child who rarely sees one’s father creates a negativeperception of him and may possibly create a stronger relationship with themother alone.

In addition,women are different in the modern era. More women are breaking the traditionalview that they are confined in the four wall of the home as a housewife.Therefore, there should be a joint agreement between both parents to divide thetasks. To cite an example, a mother would send the child to school while afather will be in-charge of picking up the child after class.

Inconclusion, I firmly believe that it is time to abolish the idea of putting theentire child rearing work on women. The idea of shared parenthood must beimplemented to keep up with the change in family dynamics that occurred overthe years.

11.The chart below shows the amount of leisuretime enjoyed by men and women of different employment status.

The graphcompares the amount of leisure time enjoyed by people of different employmentlevel s in a typical week in the year 1998-1999.

In the givencolumn graph, no data has been provided for the part-time employed andhouse-staying men. For rest of the cases, Men have more leisure time than womenof the same category.  The highest amount of leisure hours are enjoyed bythose, who are unemployed. Unemployed men had approximately 85 hours of sparetime and women from the same category had about 83 hours. The retired peoplealso enjoyed the same amount of leisure activities as did the unemployed menand women.  On the contrary, full-time employed men had a total of 40hours leisure time compared to about 37 hours of women from the same status.Finally woman with part-time job had 40 hours-time to spend as leisure time andHousewives had 50 hours leisure time.

Inconclusion, unemployed and retire people, both men and women enjoyed moreleisure time than employed people and men compared to women had more time forleisure activities. 

12.“Preventionis better than cure.”
Out of country’s health budget, a large proportion should be diverted fromtreatment to spending on health education and preventive measures.

In thisworld, many people are decreasing by various types of health problem becausethe lack of appropriate health education and preventive actions. That is whygovernment should expend huge amount of money from health budget for curerelated education as well as preventive measure. It is agreed that this policyhas a vast amount of benefit; moreover, this will be proven by analyzingeconomical point of view of a country and health aspect of people.

Firstly, many regimes spend an enormous amount of money in order to treat theirpeople from different type of serious illness. This extravagance can be easilydiminished when state commences of educational healthcare system by spendingmoney to the health teaching system. As an example, if the administrationperceives to their slums that smoking, drinking, and so on is bad things forhuman body through this educational program, many people will be not attackedby the severe sickness. This could save a large amount of money of the state.As can clearly be seen from this the illustration that this idea may bringcolossal economical benefit to the government.

Secondly, many governments fight against several types of diseases especiallythe diabetes and the heart diseases. Before these health problems assault tothe people, it can be ceased by taking some preventive measure. For example,exercise, sports, entertainment etc. can decrease the chances to become thesepatients. Making parks, playground, and cinema hall can influence people to doexercise, which can protect the people from these intense sickness. This can beachieved by investing the money for preventive measure from health budget.

In conclusions, this idea is indispensable not only to the people but also tothe governments. However, the tremendous amenities of this policy fortify myargument. Therefore, government should spend money for health education andpreventive measure from health budget.

13The first chart below shows the results of asurvey which sampled a cross-section of 100,000 people asking if they traveledabroad and why traveled for the period 1994-98. The second chart shows theirdestination over the same period.

The giventable compares the figures of a research on why 100 thousand of the UKresidents visited overseas from 1994 to 1998, and the given bar chartillustrates which countries they travelled during this time.

As a whole,majority of the UK citizens travelled abroad for entertainment, and WesternEurope was their most favorable destination. By looking at the table, it can beseen that generally there was a growing tendency for the UK people to travelinto other countries from 1994 to 1998. During second year, in 1995, the totalnumber of travellers marginally declined from just over 22000 to nearly 21500;however, it steadily grew and reached the peak of approximately 29000 in theyear 1998.

These peoplegradually became more interested to travel to all three regions during thisperiod, but Western Europe was the best option. In 1994, just below 20,000 ofthe UK citizens went into Western Europe, compared with only almost 1000 intothe North America. Furthermore, after a small drop in 1995, the population ofWestern Europe visitors remarkably increased and reached the maximum of above24000 in 1998, which was far more significant than the other two locations.

In conclusion,the most proportion of the UK citizens had a trip to Western Europe to spendtheir holidays and for business trip.

14.Without capital punishment(the deathpenalty)our lives are less secure and crimes of violence increase.Capitalpunishment is essential to control violence in society.
To What extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Beforetalking about the essential role of death penalty, you have to think about themeaning, and the purpose, of any kind of punishment. If you consider that thepurpose is to prevent the guilty from being nasty again, you can be seduced byan argumentation in favor of the suppression of capital punishment.

But you haveto think about another aspect of the problem: a punishment is also useful toimpress people, to make them fear the law. In fact, let’s take the example of ayoung misfit, which has grown in a violent atmosphere, influenced by olderdelinquents, etc.  He lives in the streets; he’s got no aim but tosurvive. This is the kind of person who could possibly kill someone for money,or even for fun .Why would he fear prison? Life would be easier for him there.In addition, in many cases, when you behave normally, you can benefit frompenalty reductions. This young misfit needs to be impressed; he needs to knowthat the law is a frontier. When you cross it, you can lose your life. That iswhy capital punishment helps keeping a distance between robbery and murder. Ifyou abolish it, you suppress the difference between these two types of crime,which are completely different.

But there isalso a limit to define: even if death penalty is unavoidable, it would be acrime to apply it to inadequate cases. If there is no premeditation or pastfacts which can justify such a punishment, it is far too strict to apply deathpenalty. That is why the lawmakers have to establish precisely the context inwhich capital punishment car being pronounced. That is the price to pay tolimit violence without using excessive violence.

15.The table below shows the figures forimprisonment in five countries between 1930 and 1980.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shownbelow.

The givenbar graph shows data on the number of prisoners in five countries namelyBritain, Australia, New Zealand, US and Canada between 1930 and 1980. As isgiven on the graph, Canada had the highest number of prisoners initially in1930 while Great Britain had the least prisoners in the same year but after 50years in 1980 the number of total prisoners decreased in Canada and UnitedStates had the largest number of prisoners.

Initially in 1930, there were 120 thousand prisoners in Canada which was thelargest number among the given five countries. There were 100 thousandprisoners both in US and New Zealand which was second largest in this year.Australia had around 70 thousand prisoners and Great Britain had only 30thousand prisoners which was least in number. After ten years in 1940,Prisoners’ number in Britain remained same while the number decreased inAustralia, New Zealand and Canada. But this year the total number of prisonersincreased in US by 30 thousand and reached to 130 thousand which was highestamong the five countries for this year. In 1950, the prisoners’ numberincreased in Britain and slightly decreased in Australia and New Zealand. Onthe other hand the prisoner in Canada increased and got highest among the fivecountries and decreased in US. In 1960, the prisoners, number increased in allthe countries except Canada and US had the largest number of prisoners.Interestingly in 1970, the number became same in Britain, New Zealand andAustralia which was about 63 thousand and both Canada and US had more than 80thousand prisoners in this year. Finally in 1980, the prisoners’ number all ofthe countries increased while the number decreased in Australia. US had thehighest number of prisoners in this year amounting around 137 thousand andGreat Britain, Canada and New Zealand had more than 80 thousand prisoners inthis year.

In summary, over the 50 years period the crime and imprisonment number gotworse in US and Britain while Australia, Canada and New Zealand did someprogress in it. In 1980, Australia had the least number of prisoners whichindicate their improvement in law and order. 

16.The position of women in society has changedmarkedly in the last twenty years. Many of the problems young people nowexperience, such as juvenile delinquency, arise from the fact that many marriedwomen now work and are not at home to care for their children. To what extentdo you agree or disagree with this opinion?

The issuewhether ‘married women should work or should stay at home to care theirchildren’ is always a disputable issue. Strong arguments are present from boththe sides and let us discuss in a detailed way.

Firstly, married women should work to get financial independence and her incomehelps the family too. Nowadays, expenses are increasing day by day and thisextra income definitely helps the family to overcome the expenses. I observedthat the families who are having two salaries always can afford the bettereducation for their children, can have better lifestyle, and can plan bettersavings. Everybody is aware that currently many women got good education andgained skills which are required for the industry. So married women should gothe work and utilize their skill which helps to the Society.

There is other side of coin always. Married women have more responsibilityabout their children. Children are connected more to mother, so mother shouldtake care of children. Mother should teach children about society, need ofeducation. If married women become busy with the work, children future willbecome uncertain. I observed some children are grown in a systematic way whoare taken care by mother.

In Conclusion, I prefer married women should work as well as concentrate onchildren career. They should balance their work and personal life. Male tooneed to help women in children’s care.

17The charts below show the number of Japanese tourists travellingabroad between 1985 and 1995 and Australia’s share of the Japanese touristmarket.

Thischart shows us about Japanese tourists go abroad for travelling in a decade andAustralian’s share of marketing for Japanese tourists. Between 1985 and 1995,Japanese tourists travelling abroad has dramatically increased. In1985, therewere about 5 million travelers goes abroad. Since 1985, the number oftravellers went up dramatically until 1990. It was almost twice then between1990 and 1993 the number remain stable, which is about 12 million. From 93 to95 it rose slightly. Lastly, in 1995 there were about 15 million people whowent abroad.

The other chart is Australian’s share of Japanese’s tourist market. This isbetween 1985 and 1994. About 2 million Japanese tourists went to Australia in1985. Between 85 and 89 people went there increased sharply, which is almost 3times more. In 1990, the numbers slightly fell but from 90 to 94 numbers wentup. However, the number of people from 94 to 95 did not go up on those who wentto Australia. It remains the same or slightly decreased.

18. Popular events likethe football world cup and other international sporting occasions are essentialin easing international tensions and releasing patriotic emotions in a safeway. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

It isbelieved that international events such as the Olympic Games play a vital rolein maintaining the world peace, and to show nationalism in a proper way. To acertain point, I would agree with the statement but some fights among thesupporters have been reported in past venues.

On the onehand, it is true that events such as the World Football Cup or the CommonwealthGames can be used as a tool to maintain the world peace, and to show patriotismin a secure way. It can be seen that during the international tournaments,athletes from various nations are competing against each other in a sportiveway. Although their countries of origin might be at war or conflict, but they shakehands and greet each other.  And during these moments, the sport peoplecan show their nationalism by giving their best effort in the games, since theyare the representative of their own countries.

On the otherhand, although the tournaments positively affect the world peace, sometimes theathletes and the supporters get carried away with their emotions. In certaincases, several athletes had fought against each other because they could notmanage their temperament, and the situation had triggered the supporters tofight against each other as well. As a result, it caused some tensions betweencountries as well. Therefore, many experts have suggested that athletes shouldbe given proper explanation about controlling their emotions during the games,because it could give negative effects to the supporters and the relationshipamong nations.

Inconclusion, it is undeniable that international sport & games such as theEuropean Football Cup or SEA Games are effective tool in easing the tensionsamong nations, and to show the patriotism in the right way. I personally agreewith the statement, but I think it is also important for the athletes to betrained about controlling their emotions.

19Thechart below shows the amount spent on six consumer goods in four Europeancountries.Write a report for a university lecturer describing the informationshown below.

Thegiven bar chart compares the money spent on different consumer goods by thepeople of four European countries namely Britain, France, Italy and Germany. Asis observed from the illustration, British people spent more money on thoseconsumer goods while Germans spent the least to buy them.

As is given in the bar graph, British people spent more than 170 thousand poundsterling for photographic films which is the highest amount spent on anyconsumer good by them as well as than other countries. British people alsospent more than 160 thousand pound sterling for purchasing Toys and CDs, whichis more than any other given nation. For perfumes, Tennis racquets and personalstereos they spent more than other nations as well. On the other hand, Frenchpeople spent around 165 thousand pounds sterling on purchasing photographicfilms which makes it the highest amount they spent on consumergoods.    

They spent about 158 thousands on Toys which is a tie with the Italian people.For photographic films, toys and CDs, their spending totaled second highestamong the given four nations. Finally they spent less than 150 thousand onremaining consumer goods. Italian citizens spent around 150 thousands onpersonal stereos, tennis racquets and CDs while they spent about 5 thousand moreon photographic films and toys. Finally, German people spent less in allconsumer good items than any other nation and their average spending was 145thousand which is less than the other nations. 

20.When a country develops its technology, the traditionalskills and ways of life die out. It is pointless to try and keep them alive. Towhat extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion.

The issue‘with the development of the technology traditional skills and the conventionallife style die’ is a controversial one and needs deeper argument beforesupporting or opposing the issue. Overall, I disagree with the opinionexpressed; I would like to begin by pointing out that ‘traditional skills andways of life’ are not totally vanished from one country, culture or communitybecause of the introduction of technology.

In manyways, the history of civilization is the history of technology: from thediscovery of fire to the invention of the wheel to the development of theInternet we have been moving on from previous ways of doing things. Sometechnologies, such as weapons of mass destruction, are of negative impact.Others, such as medical advances, positively help people to live better orlonger, and so very much help traditional ways of life. Surely, few peoplewould seek to preserve such traditions as living in caves. Technology willalways follow its own footsteps no matter what we, some people think about it.Technology advances because we need it. So there is no way to prevent theadvancement of the technology but we should embrace it positively. Thegeneration of a country is responsible to preserve their own custom andtradition and if people feel eager to save a tradition then there is no waytechnological advancement will destroy it. There are many cases wheretechnology replaces human labor to create certain things for example: handmadesari, which are still popular in many countries. Technology in this case hasnot destroyed the old tradition but has introduced a faster and less expensiveways to create the same thing.             

Interestingly,technology can positively contribute to the keeping alive of traditional skillsand ways of life. For example, the populations of some islands are too small tohave normal schools. Rather than breaking up families by sending children tothe mainland, education authorities have been able to use the Internet todeliver schooling online. In addition, the Internet, and modern refrigerationtechniques, is being used to keep alive the traditional skills of producingsalmon; it can now be ordered from, and delivered to, anywhere in the world.

Inconclusion, without suggesting that all technology is necessarily good, I thinkit is by no means ‘pointless’, in any way, to try to keep traditions alive withtechnology. We should not ignore technology, because it can be our friend andsupport our way of life.

The charts below show the level ofparticipation in education and science in developing and industrializedcountries in 1980 and 1990..

Thegiven bar charts compares the educational involvements of students in terms oftotal years of education and their participation in science related subjectsand study in developing and industrialized countries from 1980 to 1990.

According to the first bar graph, the average years of schooling in developingcounties was only about 2 while this was over 8 years in industrializedcountries in 1980. After ten year, the number of year in school in an averageincreased both in the developing and industrialized countries reaching justover 3 years in developing countries while over 10 years in developedcountries.

According to the second graph, the number of Scientist and Technician was muchhigher in developed countries than the developing countries. The percentage ofScientist and Technician in developing countries both in 1980 and 1990 wasbelow 20 while this was around 50 on an average in developed countries.

Finally, the third graph represents that the amount spent on Research andDevelopment in industrially developed countries was much higher than thespending in developing countries. In 1980 the spending was around 50 billion USdollar in developing countries while this amount was more than 150 billion USdollar in developed countries. Interestingly, after 10 years the spending inResearch & Development in developed countries was doubled while that amountdecreased almost by 50% in developing countries.

 In many countrieschildren are engaged in some kind of paid work. Some people regard this as completelywrong, while others consider it as valuable work experience, important forlearning and taking responsibility.
What are your opinions on this?

The issue ofchildren doing paid work is a complex and sensitive one. It is difficult to saywho has the right to judge whether children working is ‘wrong’ or ‘valuable’.Opinions will also differ as to ‘learning’ benefits: no doubt teachers andfactory owners, for example, would have varying concerns.

An importantconsideration is the kind of work undertaken. Young children doing arduous andrepetitive tasks on a factory production line, for example, are less likely tobe ‘learning’ than older children helping in an old people’s home. There arehealth and safety issues to be considered as well. It is an unfortunate factthat many employers may prefer to use the services of children simply to savemoney by paying them less than adults and it is this type of exploitation thatshould be discouraged. There is a big possibility that those working kids areinfluenced by different types of people they are working with and some leadthem to an unkind ways. For example: most of the working kids in the factorystart smoking and even abuse drugs at a very early age. Some kids are engagedin full-time jobs to support their family and thus how completely destroyingtheir education.

However, inmany countries children work because their families need the additional income,no matter how small. This was certainly the case in the past in manyindustrialized countries, and it is very difficult to judge that it is wrongfor children today to contribute to the family income in this way. A workingchild in many cases is the only earning member for many families. So theirsupport is invaluable and they can’t leave the jobs no matter how hazardous thejob is.

Nevertheless,in better economic circumstances, few parents would choose to send theirchildren out to full-time paid work. If learning responsibilities and workexperience are considered to be important, then children can acquire these byhaving light part-time jobs or even doing tasks such as helping their parentsaround the family home, which are unpaid, but undoubtedly of value in childrendevelopment.

Thegraph below shows the unemployment rates in the US and Japan between March 1993and March 1999. Write a report for a university lecturer describing theinformation shown below.

Theline graph compares figures for unemployment in America and Japan over a period of six years.

Overall, at the beginning of the period,the unemployment rate was higher in UScompared to Japan. However, theproportion of the workforce unemployed in Japan rose steadilybetween March 1993 and March 1999, while the figure for America fell.

In March 1993, US had 7% unemployment,in comparison with only 2.5% in Japan. Between 1993 and 1997, the American unemploymentrate showed a downward trend, whereas the figure for Japan had an upwardtrend

Bymarch, the unemployment rate fell to 5.5%. in contrast, In Japan, theunemployment rate rose steadily, reaching above 4%. The percentage ofunemployment in america fell over the next three years, dropping to 5% in march1999. There was an overall fall of 2% in the US workforce over this period ofsix years.

Onthe other hand, the proportion of Japanese workforce not working rose to over5% in march 1998. The figure plateaued between march 1998 and march 1999. Therewas an overall rise of 2.5% in the number of people not working over a periodof six years.

Itis interesting to note that both the US and Japan had 5% unemployment by theend of the period shown.

Improvement in health, education and trade are essential for thedevelopment of poorer nations. However, the government of richer nation shouldtake more responsibility for helping the poorer nations in such areas.

In balancing theworld economic growth, the under development of the third world nations havebeen drawn to the attention of the developed countries of the Western. Thus,governmental policies and interference in the agricultural business of thepoorer nations were made to secure their dominant source of the economy. Manydiscussions among economists and politicians also put their focus on the otheraspects. That is, to improve the health, education and trade for the developingcountries. However, the improvements cannot be made by these countries, butmore external assistance and aids should be done.

Because of the shortage of food supply,the people in poorer nations are easily prone to disease, hunger and death.When natural or environmental disasters happen, they are threatening with theirlives. Education cannot be well developed as a result of frequent droughts,famines and disease spreading. The other countries, while emphasizing on thedevelopment of agriculture in the Third World, cannot really give the solutionto the cyclical problem which has been existing for a long time. It is time toconsider the consequences of all the waste of efforts in trying to help theeconomic growth of the Third World and to think from the other perspectives.The richer countries have the power to rebuild the Third World by taking carethe essentials – health, education and trade. More aids for providing themedicine, educational needs and materials can be done by the richer countries.The assistance of trade and developing business in the poorer countries alsocan be of a great help to the poorer nations.

If the richer countries can be moreserious about the essential issues of how a nation develops, and well considerthe special situations and circumstances those poorer nations are facing, theimprovements will be more efficiently made. The governments of developedcountries are, in some ways, responsible – though not obliged – for the futureof those developing countries.

Thetable below shows the proportion of different categories of families living inpoverty in Australia in 1999.

The giventable presents data regarding the poor families of different types in Australiafor the year 1999. As is observed from the information, 11% of all households livedunder poverty in 1999 in Australia and among them sole parents and singleperson with no child were the highest in percentage that lived under poverty. 

According tothe given data, more than 1.8 million families of Australia lived in poverty in1999 that formed 11% of the total households. Among them, around 50 thousandspoor family came from the Single aged person and aged couple who formed 6% and4% of total of that family types. Sole parents and single person with no childformed the largest percentage of poor families and their percentage wereconsecutively 21% and 19% of their family types. Highest percentage of poorfamily was from sole parents and highest number of poor family was from couplewith children type. Comparatively, couple with no child had less povertypercentage than the single with no children.

Inconclusion, family type with aged people suffered less from poverty than thesole parents and single persons with no child.

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of three of the followingas media for communicating information. State which you consider to be the mosteffective.

In our daily life, we communicateinformation through lots of different media like: internet, television, radio,books, cell phone, film etc. We are living in such a time when information isone of the most important issues and the information technologies as well asthe communication media greatly influence our lives. The rapid-growing websitesand TV channels are many of few little examples how media are spreading to makeinformation easily accessible. All the media for information interchange haveadvantages and disadvantages and not all can attract all types of audiences.Comics, books, radios, televisions, film and theater are all very powerfulmedia for communicating information. In my opinion books, televisions and filmamong those aforementioned six media are most effective.

Books are the witness of history andthe main source from which we gain knowledge. From very ancient period till nowbooks are working as the light-house for our society. In our early age, wegather most of our knowledge, skills from books. It opens new horizons in frontof us. The writer writes down their experiences, imaginations, knowledge,explanation etc. about each and every issue of our lives. Books are the longlasting protocol to make a bridge among writers and readers.

However, all are not happy to readbooks. They expect something easier and more vivid. Music, radios, films etc.are more appealing to them. Television is another powerful media. Watchingtelevision is a part of our daily lives. Most of the people who have a TV set,watch programs, news etc. with proper attention. It is a strong medium forGovernment and other organizations to send their messages to the masspopulation. Program representatives also broad cast the people’s view andopinions about different controversial issues in TV programs. However, thismedium has lots of demerits and bad impacts. Government and politically biasedorganizations often send negative and misleading news. Again young people watchdifferent satellite channels and try to adopt the alien culture which is reallyharmful for the culture and tradition of a country.

Films are audio-visual representationand can catch the attention of people from different geographical locations,races and cultures. A good film can shape someone’s morality and doctrine andthe film-makers with their huge amount of money, are so careful to make theirfilms realistic and eye-absorbing. Every film has a direct or potential messageor moral. On the contrary, some films also bring a wrong message to us. Forexample, protagonists are always smoking in the films and it seems that smokingis a good and smart habit. It causes many younger people imitate them smoking.

In conclusion, I would like to some upthat books, televisions and films are the most powerful and effective mediasfor communicating information.

The graph below shows the demand forelectricity in England during typical days in winter and summer. The pie chartshows how electricity is used in an average English home.

The givengraphs show the electricity demand in England in a typical day of winter andsummer and also show how people used this electricity. According to the firstline graph, we can see that, the electricity demand in winter is much higherthan the demand in summer in England.

In a typicalday the electricity demand in winter season is around 35000 units and it isaround 18000 units in summer season. Again the demand of the electricity varieson several hours of the day and the demand from 6:00 to 9:00 am is lesser thanthe demand in other hours of the day. During the winter the demand is highestfrom 21:00 to 23:00 and during summer the demand is highest from 13:00 to 14:00hours.

Based on the pie chart we can conclude that, the room heating and water heatingis the main purpose people consume the electricity in England. The demand forwashing machine, kettle and ovens consumes around 18% of total electricityconsumed and two other categories consume 15% electricity each. These two othercategories which consume 30% of total electricity include light, TV, Radio,vacuum cleaner, food mixer and other electric told and devices.

 Happiness isconsidered very important in life.
Why is it difficult to define?
What factors are important in achieving happiness?

It is truethat happiness is a prerequisite to people’s quality of life, although actualdefinition of happiness seems to be difficult to describe, there are variousfactors which considered being crucial in acquiring happiness.

It is quitelaborious to find out an actual definition for the term HAPPINESS. The reasonfor this is that happiness means different thing to different people. Mostpeople may have at least one hobby or a treat which could help them to uplifttheir spirits instantly. While for some people, it might be their job or acareer which brings them a sense of fulfillment. At the same time, for others,personal belongings are the paramount of a serene life. To take an example of aweb designer, Richard Jackson, who believes that the key element for apleasurable life is a close relationship. In my case, happiness is when I amtaking my time out of a hectic routine to spend a quality time along with myfamily.

There doseem to be some common needs that we all share in regards to experiencing orachieving pleasure. Firstly, investing in personal relationships can give abroad (long) way to boost up people’s level of happiness. For instance,spending even a fraction of time from a whole day with your children whiledoing some share activities could help to build up an immense mutualunderstanding as well as an inner-satisfaction in them, which is a subtleprecursor to bring in leveled happiness. Secondly, a prestigious line of workcould help to raise people’s contentment by allowing them to have ample amountof wages. As a result, they can entertain themselves with all the basicnecessities of life without worrying about any financial distress.

To sum up,due to a nature of happiness it is not that easy to describe it in one specificsentence. We can merely acknowledge several factors which are mandatory to someextent in seeking happiness.

Thechart below shows the different levels of post-school qualifications inAustralia and the proportion of men and women who held them in1999.

Thegiven bar graph compares the male and female post-school degree qualifiedpersons in Australia for the year 1999. As is presented in the graph, more maleachieved their post-school degrees in skilled vocational diploma, MastersDegree, Postgraduate Diploma than female while more female achievedUndergraduate Diploma and Bachelor Degree than their male counterpart.

According to the data given in the chart, Australian male and female whoachieved their post-school degrees in 1999 were classified in five categories.Female pot-school qualified surpassed the male in Undergraduate Diploma,Bachelor’s Diploma and in Undergraduate Diploma the percentage of female was70% compared to the only 35% male. Male were predominating in percentage forthe Master’s degree, Postgraduate Diploma and Skilled Vocational Diploma. 90%male completed skilled vocational diploma and remaining 10% was female.

In summary, male completed Vocational Diploma, Postgraduate Diploma and Mastersdegree more than female did and female outnumbered the male in UndergraduateDiploma, and Bachelor Diploma. Though more female completed their BachelorDegree, the percentage decreased in Masters Degree level where 60% malecompleted it.

Creativeartist should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words,pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be nogovernment restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree ordisagree with this opinion?

Theissue of freedom of creative artist has extremely grown in importance in mostcountries over the few decades. It is considered that government should notinterfere to their work and the artist should be free to do whatever they want.While I accept many artists are sharing their valuable ideas for the tremendousdevelopment of this world, I believe some certain area they should becontrolled by the rules and regulation.  

Admittedly, the human civilization has approached this sophisticated stagebecause many creative artists bestow us enormous number of significant ideasand opinions in the form of picture, music or film. As an example, manycreative artists like Leonardo Da Vinci had first draw the design of airplane;but, at that time nobody could think that human can fly and everybody thought itwas just imagined of his mind. Although it required long time, but it becametrue that human now can fly. This example makes it clear that the work ofartists can lead to immense improvement of humankind. Therefore, many peoplethink that they should be free with their works for the advancement of humanbeing.

On the other hand, there are some vital reasons why the work of artists shouldbe controlled in some certain area. Firstly, most people in this world believein the God; so the artist should not create such type of acts, which hurt thereligion. If this type of activity they make, it may bring colossalembarrassment to the human society. Secondly, the artist should not go againstany culture and costume of a country. In this certain field, government canlimit the practice of an artist.

In conclusion, the creative artist is indispensable in our society althoughsome artists have trended to draw against our cast, creed, and religion. In myopinion, this tendency may call harmful to our mankind so that the governmentshould control the activity, which can go directly against to our culture andreligion.

 Thecharts below give information about travel to and from the UK, and about themost popular countries for UK residents to visit.

Thegiven diagrams show data on the number of international tourists who travelledthe UK and the UK residents who travelled outside UK from 1979 to 1999. Thedata also presents the countries where UK citizens travelled in 1999. As isobserved from the given data, the number of international tourists travellingthe UK kept on increasing after 1989 and more UK people travelled outside theUK than the number of tourists travelled the UK.

According to the first line graph, around 10 million international touriststravelled the UK and the number of UK residents travelled outside UK was alsojust over 10 million. Both of these numbers kept on increasing gradually till1986 and after that the number of UK citizens travelling outside increased verysharply. The number of tourists the UK got kept on increasing and reached toover 25 million in 1999 while more than 50 million people travelled to othercountries from the UK. The number of UK travelers who went to other countrieswas more than double than the number of people came to the UK for visiting.

The second bar graph shows the countries UK citizens travelled in 1999 andamong them France was their most favorite destination where more than 10%tourists travelled in this year. The second most visited country by UK peoplewas Spain where about 8% of total UK tourists travelled. Other countriesvisited by UK tourists were the USA, Greece and Turkey where less than 5% UKtourists travelled in 1999.

 In manycountries, schools have severe problems with student behaviour.
What do you think are the causes of this?
What solutions can you suggest?

Nowadays,schools in various parts of the world report that students tend to have behavioralproblems. Unfortunately, this will make it harder for schools to educatestudents as problematic behaviors are likely to interfere with the educationprocess.
There are some reasons as to why students behave inappropriately. Firstly, theway society works these days affect students’ behavioral patterns. Forinstance, parents might spend more time at work than at home and as a result,children lack parental guidance, not knowing how they are supposed to behave.This in turn is likely to cause them to have behavioral problems. Secondly,such behaviors might be caused by external influences, such as internet andtelevision. Students, for example, might watch TV shows that use a lot ofviolence. Therefore, they are likely to imitate in real life by being moreaggressive and using more violence. After all, students, especially teenagers,are easily affected by external parties.
In order to counter such problem, teachers should be friendly while stillmaintaining their professionalism. By being friendly, teachers might be able tounderstand students’ point of views and thus devise the right strategies toconnect with them. This is because students are more likely to listen toteachers if they feel they can relate to the teachers and that the teachersunderstand them. Furthermore, it is also important to handle studentspatiently. This is really crucial, since rough treatments might worsen their behaviorsor encourage them to play truant. It is therefore wiser to be patient and guidestudents gradually to be well-behaved rather than using force to do so.
In conclusion, behavioral problems are resulted from the way society worksthese days (e.g. lack of parental guidance) and external parties, such as badinfluences from TV shows. Nevertheless, by understanding students’ views andguiding them patiently, students can gradually change and behave in a moreappropriate manner.

The graph below shows the proportion of thepopulation aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three different countries

Thegiven line graph compares the aged people of Sweden, the USA and Japan from1940 and gives projection till 2040.

As is observed from the line graph, initially in 1940, the proportion of agedpeople who were over 64 years old was between 5 to 10 percent. This rate kepton increasing in the USA and Sweden while decreased in Japan. After 40 years in1989, this percentage was around 15% both in Sweden and the USA while it wasonly 2-3% in Japan. The more the aged people in a country the better the lifeexpectancy and medical improvement and this indicated the improvement in theUSA and Sweden while down-grade trend in Japan. But after 2000, the rate ofaged people in Japan kept increasing sharply and it is projected that in 2040the number of aged people would surplus the number in Sweden and the USA thoughthese later two countries would also have more aged people in this coming yearsthey have now. This also forecast the life expectancy and medical advancementin Japan after 2030.

Universities should accept equal numbers ofmale and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree ordisagree?

There is anold saying “Give an educated mother and I will give you an educatednation”. This proverb alone emphasizes the issue of women education.Throughout the history men and women both worked hand by hand to build aperfect world and whatever the current world is, has been contributed both bymale and female but not one specific gender. As University education is soimportant for the full bloom of one person’s merit skill and knowledge, theremust arise the equal opportunity for both male and female students. They workside by side as friends but not like competitors. If only men go ahead ineducation, research, arts, history and women remains backward then no goods canbe done. So I strongly support the idea of taking same number of male andfemale students in every level of education as well as in the university level.

The historysuggests that men are dominant in numbers in science, arts, engineering,creativity and business sectors. But we cannot deny the contribution of MotherTeresa or madam Merry Currie who has devoted their whole life for thebetterment of the world. It is true that if the competition is arrangedregardless of gender more male student will be ahead of women. But stillUniversities should accept equal number of students. If fewer females hold theimportant sectors of a country naturally women will feel deprived and this willlead them to compete with men.

It is amother who is much more emotionally attached with their kids and friendlier tokids than fathers. So they help the kids about their study. So the importanceof female education in higher level gets priority considering this singleissue.

Inconclusion Universities should get admitted same number of students from bothsex and give the equal opportunity in every level.

The charts below show the main reasons forstudy among students of different age groups and the amount of support theyreceived from employers

Thegiven graphs show the reason why students from different age groups study andalso show the support they get from their employers.

According to the first bar graph, people who are under 40 years old mostlystudy for career while people over 49 years mainly study for their interest.Interestingly for the age group 40 to 49, there number of people who study forcareer and the number of people who study for interest is same. 80% studentsunder 26 years old continue their study for having a good career while only 10%of this age group does that for subject interest. The percentage of studentswho study for career decreases with the increase of their age and a oppositepattern can be observed for the percentage of students who study for subjectinterest rather than career.

Based on the bar graph 2, more than 60% students under 26 years old get supportfrom their employers for their education and this supports includes the timeoff and monetary supports they get. This percentage reduces with the increaseof age and at 30-39 age group 32% get the support from the employers. Afterthat the employers’ support for their employees’ education increases andreaches to 45% for the over 49 year’s age group.

In summary, most young people continue their study to have a career and as theygrow up, their main reason of study becomes subject interest and the employeesless than 30 years of age and over 49 years of age  get more support fromtheir employers than other age group.

 In somecountries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year betweenfinishing high school and starting university studies

Itis quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a breakfrom studying after graduating from high school. This trend is not restrictedto rich students who have the money to travel, but is also evident among poorerstudents who choose to work and become economically independent for a period oftime.

The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult whopasses directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms ofgeneral knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who havespent some time earning a living or traveling to other places have a broaderview of life and better personal resources to draw on. They tend to be moreindependent, which is a very important factor in academic study and research, aswell as giving them an advantage in terms of coping with the challenges ofstudent life.

However, there are certainly dangers in taking time off at that important age.Young adults may end up never returning to their studies or finding itdifficult to re-adapt to an academic environment. They may think that it isbetter to continue in a particular job, or to do something completely differentfrom a university course. But overall, I think this is less likely today, whenacademic qualifications are essential for getting a reasonable career.

My view is that young people should be encouraged to broaden their horizons.That is the best way for them to get a clear perspective of what they arehoping to do with their lives and why. Students with such a perspective areusually the most effective and motivated ones and taking a year off may be thebest way to gain this.

The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. Anew supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sitesfor the supermarket.

Thegiven map shows two possible locations for the planned supermarket in theGarsdon city. As is presented in the illustration, the city has a population ofmore than 65 thousand and the two possible locations for the supermarket arenear Hindon and in the middle of the industrial area.

According to the map, the railway surrounds the city and intersects the cityalmost in the middle. There are main roads for transportation and countrysidesurrounds the main housings and industries of the city. The housing of the cityis mainly in the North and South sides of the city and the town center is inthe middle of the industrial area. The first possible location for the plannedsupermarket is near the Hindon area where almost ten thousand inhabitants liveand the location is in the north-west corner. This location would be ideal forthe Hindon people for shopping but the people of Crandon and Brandon, whichhave great more population, would be far away from this supermarket. The secondpossible location which is almost in the center of the city would be surroundedby industrial zones and housings in North and South sides of the city. Thiswould be an ideal place as it would connect all the shoppers in the three partsof the city. Since the railway passes near this location, this would be abetter place in terms of communication as well.

In summary, the second location (S2) would be a better place for thesupermarket between the possible two locations though the first location wouldbe advantageous for the people of Hindon area and would be out of crowd.

Some people think that a sense of competitionin children should be encouraged. Others believe that children who are taughtto co-operate rather than compete become more useful adults.

Thereare some People who think that competition in children should be made, alsoothers believe that children who are taught to co-operate as well as becomemore useful adults. There are advantages and disadvantages for both of thearguments.
To begin with, what is good if a sense of competition m children is made? Theycould develop themselves more and more as they learn and study a lot to winfrom the competition. To prove this, in Korea, it is popular – even common now– to have a tutor who comes to student’s house to teach extra pieces of studywith paying a lot of money. They learn faster than what they learn at school.Furthermore, during the vacations, students study abroad to learn English for amonth instead of revises school work. If they have experiments such as studyabroad, it is one of the greatest plus point to go to the famous well-knownhigh-school. Moreover, there are four big school exam and two nationalexaminations to test students’ level of studies. Generally, only the highest40% can go to the good quaternary high schools and colleges. Children learn asmuch as they can, to win the competition to obtain good quality schools.
On the other hand, as they are busy to enter the schools and study individuallywith their own tutors, there are problems. They become selfish. They becomecareless and don’t help others a lot if it is about studies. There will be noco-operations for them. Then, why are there companies for many people to workin? Each of them are clever, however, there are weak parts and strong parts foreach person. To co-operate is to improve this part. People talk and listen towhat others thinking of and learn. That could also be a great opportunity tolearn instead of learning alone with one teacher.
In conclusion, I strongly agree with that children should be taught toco-operate rather than compete. Nobody is perfect. People learn together, worktogether to develop each other. Therefore, I want parents and teachers toeducate children concentrating on co-operation, not compete and ranking them.

The table below gives information about theunderground railway systems in six cities.

Thegiven table shows data on underground railway system of six cities namelyLondon, Paris, Tokyo, Washington DC, Kyoto and Los Angeles and compares theserail stations opening date, route and passengers number. As is observed fromthe given data, London underground railway system was established before otherrailway systems of other cities and they have the largest route for this railroad. But Tokyo railway system has the highest number of passengers per yearamong the given cities.

London railway system was established in 1863, which makes it the oldestunderground railway system and it has more than 390 km of route which is alsothe largest route among these six cities. Each year more than 700 millionpassengers use these underground railway stations of London. Paris undergroundrailway system was started in 1900 and it has almost 200 km route with morethan 1190 million of passengers. Again Tokyo underground railway system has thelargest passengers (more than 1900 millions) and it was established in 1927that has 155 km of route. Kyoto underground railway system was opened in 1981and it has the smallest route of 11 km and least passengers (45 millions) usethis system among the mentioned six cities. Washington Dc and Los Angelesunderground railway system were established in 1976 and 2001 with comparativelysmaller routes and few passengers. The Los Angeles underground railways systemis the latest railway system in terms of the date it was opened and has secondsmallest number of route (28 km) and passengers (50 millions).

In conclusion, the oldest underground railway system is in London and Tokyo hasthe largest number of passengers of their underground railway system. 

Research indicates that the characteristics weare born with have much more influence on our personality and development thanany experiences we may have in our life. Which do you consider to be the majorinfluence?

In today’smodern world, numerous researches have been conducted around the globe in orderto improve the personality and the development of an individual. There is onerecent research which has clearly shown that the personality and development ofa person are highly likely to depend on the characteristics that they are bornwith as compared to other experiences in their life. However, I believeexperiences of a person will have a greater impact on one’s personality anddevelopment.

Undoubtedly,if we could utilize the experience we gain from working or travelling abroad,we would be more mature and more open-minded. Whenever we arrive in a newplace, we can learn the cultures and traditions from the locals in order toacquire more information about the lifestyles of others and eventually becomemore knowledgeable. Besides, we may learn how to respect and not to criticizethe customs of other races which may be slightly or totally different fromours. By doing so, we can actually get benefited by being able to look at theproblems from a various perspective.

We may alsobecome more self-independent than others if we live in a harsh environment whenwe were young. To illustrate, in China, many children have to sacrifice theirstudies and come out to work since they were small. They are proved to have theability to make more mature decisions on their own in a research conducted inChina between those who are affluent and those who live in poverty. Moreover,people who face a lot of hardships in their lives will have a detailed plan ofwhat to do next. For instance, they will organize their expenditure well, whichin other words, they will not spend money on unnecessarily things, especiallythose luxurious items. Therefore, it is apparent that experiences gained fromvarious field in their lives have a huge influence on one’s personality anddevelopment.

Inconclusion, I am of the opinion that life experience has major consequences onour personalities and developments than the characteristics that we are bornwith. We will be able to think from different perspectives and make wisedecisions if we use the experiences that we gained in our daily live.

The graph and table below give informationabout water use worldwide and water consumption in two different countries.

The graph shows howthe amount of water used worldwide changed between 1900 and 2000 and waterconsumptions of two countries compared to their population.

Throughout thecentury, the largest quantity of water was used for agricultural Purposes, andthis increased dramatically from about 500 km³ to around 3,000 km³ in the year2000. Water used in the industrial and domestic sectors also increased, butconsumption was minimal until mid-century. From 1950 onwards, industrial usegrew steadily to just over 1,000 km³, while domestic use rose more slowly toonly 300 km³, both far below the levels of consumption by agriculture.

The table illustrates the differencesin agriculture consumption in some areas of the world by contrasting the amountof irrigated land in Brazil (26,500 km³) with that in the D.R.C. (100 km²).This means that a huge amount of water is used in agriculture in Brazil, andthis is reflected in the figures for water consumption per person: 359 m³compared with only 8 m³ in the Congo. With a population of 176 million, the figuresfor Brazil indicate how high agriculture water consumption can be in somecountries.

Today, the high sales of popular consumergoods reflect the power of advertising and not the real needs of the society inwhich they are sold.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Today,with significant increase of the number of producers for various goods, notonly do buyers have difficulty choosing favorable products but also competitionbetween producers to persuade consumers has been become hard and serious.Therefore advertisement play a key role in today’s marketing so that somepeople believe that power of advertisement is the major incentive for markedgrowth of buying popular consumer products and necessary needs of buyers is notvery important. I agree with this opinion to some extent but I think the mainreason for these increase of sale is people’s necessity not advertisement.

On the one hand, producers apply various methods to market their products forconsumers. These days, if you see carefully around yourself, you will facetempting advertising slogan on billboard on streets, on different types ofmedia that surround you and want to induce you to choose their goods. Companiesspend a great deal of money advertising the products so that they use celebrityand famous people to bring their favors into their stories. These methods havebeen successful in some cases especially for affluent people who want to be infashion and able to afford the luxurious goods such as house, cars and jewelry.So this success is held in a limited circle.

On the other hand, intensive growth of sales of people’s main consumer productsis as a result of increasing their needs to them. The role of advertisement inthis area is confined to help buyer choose the best products and not persuadethem to buy unnecessary goods. When it comes to vital goods of living, peoplewhether rich or poor do not pay attention to advertising messages that how muchor many of these goods they buy.

In conclusion, I think that is true the power of advertisement can make peoplebuy their products but this power is limited to rich people and alsounnecessary consumer goods so that the real needs of the society dictate therate of sales.

 The table below gives information aboutchanges in modes of travel in England between 1985 and 2000

The giventable illustrates how mode of travel changed in England between 1985 and 2000.Generally, comparing to 1985, English travelled more each year, 6475 miles foreach person.

Cars were byfar the most popular mode of travel in both years in England. In 1985, theaverage distance travelled by English was 3,199 miles, and 4806 miles in 2000.On the other hand, we can see immediately that taxi was the least popular modefor travel. Although the traveling distance in 2000 was above three times aslong as in 1985, only 42 miles was travelled per person this year, which wasalmost same for the bicycle. No significant changes happened to some modes oftravels, like walking, bicycle and other modes between 1985 and 2000. Accordingto the table, in 2000 local bus was used less than in 1985. Only 274 miles weretravelled in 2000, which was 55 miles less than in 1985. In contrast, longdistance bus becomes more popular. Each person travelled 124 miles by longdistance bus in 2000 while only 54 miles in 1985.

Inconclusion, in England, people travelled more distance in 2000 than in 1985. Itis obvious that cars were the most popular mode for travelling.

Successful sports professionals can earn agreat deal more money than people in other important professions. Some peoplethink this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss boththese views and give your own opinion.

Nowadays,sports professionals are obtaining more attention among people from all overthe world. Media is one of the main reasons that make a person to get fame inno time. So the sports persons are being treated like celebrities worldwide. Togive a piece of one’s mind, talented sports persons should be compensated withmore pay.

To be atlogger heads, some might feel this suggestion is unfair. It is a fact that, notall the sports stars are talented than the people who works in other esteemedprofessions such as doctors, scientists and politicians. They play an importantrole in the growth of their nation. Whereas sports persons play for themselvesby using their country’s name only as a label, sometimes they bring success andfame for the whole nation. Because of media, people give keen attention tosports celebrities and treat other professions scornfully.

In an honorbound, those who have mere talents must be paid with huge amount of money. Itis indeed that not all sports persons are successful in their careers. Peoplewho have audacity and hardworking nature are the one who relish with victory.Even though they play for their personal goal, achievements they make in sportsalso make the nation very proud. Considering this reason, it is fully justifiedto let a sports person to earn great deal of money.

To conclude,the sports professionals with suffice tendency to accomplish something in theircareer are justified to acquire huge earnings. It clearly depicts that, sportsprofessions has more value than other essential professions around the world.

The diagrams below show the life cycle of thesilkworm and the stages in the production of silk cloth.

Thetwo given pictures describe the life cycle of silkworm and also illustrate theprocedure of silk cloth production.

As is presented in the first picture lifecycle of silkworm begins with eggslaid by mother worm. Silkworm eggs transform into shape of silkworm larva afteraround 10 days. Then the second process starts, and in this stage larva usuallyeat leaves like mulberry leaves in order to grow up.

Food process lasts 4 to 6 weeks. Larva generates silk threads shells in the endof second stage. Third stage begins when silk thread shells create cocoon, thisprocess usually lasts for 3 to 8 days. In final stage cocoons transform intomoth after 16 days. And moths grow up and recycle whole procedure step by step.

As is observed from second picture, which describes the producing of silk clothfrom silk worm, total stages of silk cloth production are five. Initially infirst stage silk thread shells are selected and boiled into hot water. Shellsare unwinded properly and unwinded shells are exactly 300 to 900m long. Thenthreads are twisted and dyed in dyer. And finally those silks are weaved andagain dyed.

The process of twist and dry, weave and dry possibly repeated if it isnecessary to produce high quality silk cloth.

Some people believe that visitors to othercountries should follow local customs and behaviour. Others disagree and thinkthat the host country should welcome cultural differences.

It isnoticeable that people tend to travel more frequently these days than they usedto do in the past. While I agree that the travellers should follow the hostcountry’s traditions and cultures, I also think that the host country shouldwelcome cultural differences.

On one hand,travellers should adapt to the culture of their host country and feel happywith the idea of trying new things. Nowadays, people not only considertravelling as a way to relax but also they think it is a chance for self-improvementand exploring the world. Travelling is a good opportunity to try new thingssuch as traditional cuisine, music and customs and those who just travel toview landscapes waste a perfect chance to learn something new. For example,people who have visited places like India, Egypt or China have been veryexcited when they tried the local food or wore the traditional dress. Anexperience like this broadens people’s horizons and enriches their knowledge.

On the otherhand, for many reasons the host country should accept and understand thedifferent backgrounds of tourists. Firstly, for many visitors it would bedifficult to follow the host culture and customs because these usuallydifferent than their own and in some cases they may even be incompatible withtheir beliefs and morals. For example, Indian or Arabs who go to Europeancountries may find it difficult to get used to the European taste in foodbecause it does not contain as much spices as they have in their food. Inaddition if travellers feel they are welcomed in the new country despite of thecultural differences they will feel more comfortable to visit this place again.

Inconclusion, I believe that it could be beneficial for travellers to get exposedto different cultures and customs. However, tourist destinations should beopened to the cultural diversity of its newcomers.

The charts below give information about USAmarriage and divorce rates between 1970 and 2000 and the marital status ofadult Americans in two of the years.

The firstchart illustrates the change in the number of marriages and divorces in the USover a 30-year period from 1970. The second chart compares the proportion ofAmerican adults’ different marital statuses in two years, 1970 and 2000.

Overall,there was a clear downward trend of people getting married in the US. Althougha majority of adult Americans were married in both recorded years, there was aquite higher percentage of people staying single in 2000.

From 1970 to1980, 2.5 million marriages were registered in America; however, this numbergradually decreased to 2 million by the year 2000. In contrast, the number ofdivorces filed was around 1 million in 1970 and then reached a peak at almost1.5 million a decade later. There had been since then less divorces and thefigure fell back to 1 million in 2000, exactly 50% of that of the marriages inthe same year.

Thepercentage of married American adults dropped from 70% in 1970 to around 60% in2000. Similarly, there was a marginal decrease in the proportion of widowedpeople. The figures for never married people and divorced ones experienced aslight rise, by around 8% for each category.

Some people prefer to spend their lives doingthe same things and avoiding change. Others, however, think that change isalways a good thing

Thereare arguments that individuals should be refrained from doing new things andmust stick to traditional methods. However, some people are convinced thatindividuals need to venture into some noble experiences in life. In my opinion,I would argue that alterations in some activities and practices are essentialto achieve progress and success.    
Primarily, it can never be denied that some people may become comfortable tothe routine practices in life, which they are more accustomed. Clearly, peoplewill not need to learn new things as they are already more cognizant about theactivities that they habitually perform. For instance, in this modern era, theseniority group will find it confusing to read newspapers in an electronictablet due to the fact that they are not aware of its new features and theproper operation of the gadget. For these reasons, the geriatric individuals donot need to learn the settings and the high technology applications as it willtake them a long period of time to adapt this product of technology.
However, it can be argued that the life of people will become more adventurousif they opt to new trends and experiences. As can be expected, the progress andsuccess in life are often achieved when a person tries to explore new ideas andpractices, which might be beneficial for the improvement of his or her life. Toillustrate, a businessman, who have experienced failures in his or herbusiness, will resort to new strategies in order to make the business more firmand highly profitable. This can be done by abandoning the old-fashioned stylesand techniques while accepting the modern ways, which could make the people’slives more favorable. The new idea, new way of life and changes to the old waylife often bring new opportunities to people and getting adapted to the changesis the primary means of survivals and advancement.

In conclusion, there is a heated argument whether people must remain to theconservative ways of life or to resort to modern trends. However, I personallybelieve that the ideology of success can be reached if people will embrace thenew-fangled ways of living in the society.

The table below gives information on consumerspending on different items in five different countries in 2002.

The giventable represents amount spent by consumers of five different countries ondifferent categories of items in year 2002. As is presented in chart people ofIreland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and finally Turkey consumed specific amount ondifferent items respectively as mentioned different items like food and tobaccowhereas clothing and footwear and finally leisure and education.

Let’sanalyse the data given table in detail. As is observed Turkey consumedexcessive amount on food and tobacco which constitutes highest percentage by32.14%.Whereas Ireland was second top country which consumed significant highamount on food and tobacco (28.9%) while Italy, Spain and Sweden spent higherthan 15% respectively. On the other hand, all countries consumed fewer amountson clothing and footwear. As is observed, 9% was the highest amount consumed oncloths & footwear by Italy consumers whereas Ireland, Spain, Sweden andfinally Turkey expenditures were less than 5%.

Interestingly Turkey was giving priority to leisure and education and spendingsignificant higher percentage (4.35%) while at the same time people of Irelandwas not taking interest to consume on leisure and education and spending amounton small extent by 2.21%.

In conclusion, Turkey gave priority to food and tobacco whereas Italy spentsubstantial amount on clothing and footwear and lastly Turkish gave priority toeducation and leisure and spent 4.35%.

It is generally believed that some people areborn with certain talents, for instance for sport or music, and others are not.However, It is sometimes claimed that any child can be taught to become a goodsports person or musician.

Thesedays a talent hunt shows are very popular in India. Some people have quiteunique talents which are difficult to imagine. For example, a person can createa shadow of different faces of the freedom fighters of India by just using histwo hands. It is a debatable topic whether such talents are learned or it isGod gifted.

Few people are born with a talent. For instance, a two years old child can playmultiple drums parallel like a professional musician. I am confident that achild cannot learn such skills at the age of two. Sometimes you inherit suchskills from your ancestors. For instance, it is not surprising if a greatsinger’s son can also sing very well.
On the other hand we have a considerable amount of people who are differentfrom their family. For example, a golf world champion belongs to the wrestler’sfamily. A champion confirmed that his father wanted him to be different thanhis family. With rigorous training he became would champion at the age of nine.If talent is acquired only by birth than a coaching concept would not have beenaccepted so widely.
It is said that China won 15 medals in one of the Olympic Games. After that thegovernment started a training program nationwide where kids are being trainedin different sports. In two decades China won 15 medals and became number onein that Olympic game.
I truly believe that talent can be learned by passion and dedication. We wouldnot have got some of the greatest talent in India like Lata Mangeshkar andSachin Tendulkar if they would have not continued trying after initialfailures. If talent is acquired by birth then Mr. Amitabh Bachchan would havestopped the acting after continuous nice flop films in the starting of hiscareer, thinking he does not have the acting skill by birth.

The graph below shows the consumption of fishand some different kinds of meat
in a European country between 1979 and 2004.

The givenline graph compares the fish and meat consumptions by the people of a Europeancountry from 1979 to 2004.

As is presented in the graph, the consumption of chicken increased over thetime while meats of different types were more preferred by people in the givenEuropean country than the fishes.

According to the graph, more than 200 grams of beef was consumed daily by eachperson initially in 1979. In this year, each person on an average ate 150 gramsof chicken and lambs while the consumption was just over 50 grams in this year.Over time people preferred chicken and the consumption kept on increasing andreached to over 250 grams per day by each person. The consumption of beef, lambdecreased over time and finally in 2004 the average consumption of these twomeat types decreased to around 100 grams per person in a day. The amountconsumed for fish remained almost same throughout the years and slightly decreasedover time.

In summary,people started consuming more chicken than beef and lamb and the fishconsumption remained almost same.

 Somepeople believe that there should be fixed punishment for each type of crime.Others, however, argue that the circumstances of an individual crime, and themotivation for committing it, should always be taken into account when decidingon the punishment.

Inrecent years, there has been a rise in the number of crimes being committed.Many people are of the opinion that these wrong-doings should be classifiedcategorically. However, I believe that each offence should be looked upon in asubjective manner, taking into account the nature and severity of theseunlawful activities.

Giving a fixed punishment would definitely make court proceedings a lotquicker. This is because the judges would not need to decide what type ofpunishment criminals would deserve as it would have been already decided forthem. However, this is an unfair practice as some of the criminals may notdeserve the punishments given to them. For example, a person robbing aconvenient store will not deserve the same punishment as a person robbing abank because the degree of the crime is not as severe as the latter.

On the other hand, deciding a crime according to the situation and motive of itmake perfect sense as it would ensure that the lawbreaker is given a fair trialand the right punishment is handed down to him. For instance, a mentally illperson who commits a murder would be judged accordingly, instead of beinggrouped into the same category of all the other type of murderers. This,therefore, will make the trial balance and fair.

In conclusion, my opinion is that the punishment for a crime should be made upbased on all the factors leading up to the unlawful action rather thanproviding judgment based on the classification of crimes into types.

The chart below shows information aboutchanges in average house prices in five different cities between 1990 and 2002compared with the average house prices in 1989.

The barchart depicts the average house prices in five different cities between 1990and 2002 compared with the prices of year 1989, a period of 12 years. Overall,it can be seen that, the average house prices of London was shown fluctuatingthroughout the year.

In details,the percentage of house prices in New York in between the year 1990 -1995 wasaccounted just 5 percent in negative direction. However, the same percentage inNew York was in positive side between 1996 – 2002. Similarly, the average houseprices of London and Tokyo (Japan) was presented in similar percentageapproximately7 percent in negative in 1990-1995 where the percentage of Londonpeaks at highest position at 13 percent in 1996-2002 and Tokyo city house pricewas still observed in negative side at 5 percent .

Thepercentage change in average house price of Madrid (Spain) was only 1 percentin previous 6 years but it dramatically increased 4 times in next followingyear. In 1990-1995 the average house price of Frankfurt (Germany) was only 2percent but it was interesting that it declines and reached the same percentageas Madrid (Spain) at 1 percent.

As most people spend a major part of theiradult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individualwell-being.
What factors contribute to job satisfaction?
How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

It isbelieved most of the adults’ lives are spent on their workplace, therefore manypeople think that job satisfaction is an essential matter for them. There arevarious factors that affect job satisfaction and the following essay willdiscuss in details about some of the factors, and whether that the factors arerealistic or not.

There aresome points that influence job satisfaction. Firstly, many employees believethat they are satisfied with their careers since the tasks are in accordancewith their passions. They think that the work that they are currently doing isaligned with their talents and they are performing well. Secondly, someemployees believe that they would be satisfied with their jobs, if they arepaid with the expected compensation and benefits. They are being realistic thatsalary is also a trigger to their work performance. And lastly but not least, alot of people believe that conductive working environment would also effect onthe job satisfaction.

Some peopleare idealistic persons and they are willing to work hard in the task that is inaccordance with their talent. This kind of thought is realistic since workingis not just being paid, but it should also be meaningful and satisfying. As forthe compensation and benefit, it is a fact that human kinds are never satisfiedwith their earning. The idea that employees would be satisfied with their jobsif they are paid high is just not realistic. Salary would only satisfy them fora certain amount of time and after that they will ask for more. And as for theconductive working environment, it would be difficult to find the idealenvironment. Every workplace has its owned unique culture and style; thereforethe workers should adapt and adjust themselves to the working environment.

Inconclusion, it is true that adults are spending a lot of their time at work,therefore jobs satisfaction is an important thing. There are several factorsthat contribute to job satisfaction, but some are realistic while others arejust not.

 The piecharts below show units of electricity production by fuel source in Australiaand France in 1980 and 2000.

Thegiven pie charts show data on the electricity production from fuel sources inAustralia and in France in 1980 and 2000. As is observed from the pie charts,coal was the main source for electricity production in Australia while Franceused the Nuclear Power more in recent years to produce their electricitydemand.

According the given data, Australia produced 100 units of electricity in 1980and 170 units in 2000 while the production in France was 90 units and doubledin the year 2000.
 In Australia coal was the main source of electricity production and halfof the total electricity produced came from coal in 1980. Natural gas and hydropower contributed of producing 20 units of electricity while remaining 10 unitswas produced from oil. The dependency on coal increased in 2000 for electricityproduction while oil and natural gases were very minimally used for electricityproduction. Nuclear power was not used in Australia as source for producingelectricity.

On the contrary, In France natural gas and coal together produced half of theelectricity in 1980. The use of nuclear power increased significantly in Francein 2000 amounting 126 units in this year compared to the 15 units 20 yearsback.  

 Some peoplethink that universities should provide graduates with the knowledge and skillsneeded in the workplace. Others think that the true function of a universityshould be to give access to knowledge for its own sake, regardless of whetherthe course is useful to an employer.
What, in your opinion, should be the main function of a university?

The primarypurpose of tertiary education is to prepare graduates for their future career.While thousands of people would enroll for the sake of acquiring generalknowledge and skills which will make them competitive on the job market, thereis a portion of them who would expect to obtain the specific qualificationsonly for their dream job. Therefore, I strongly believe that university should organizetheir courses’ programs in order to provide future employees with all the skillsharpening professional training for their specific occupation.

Onecompelling reason for this is that all the contemporary occupations nowadaysare task specific which makes it a necessity for workers to be able to complywith every job requirement. Once they graduate they are expected to take overall the responsibilities their job needs them to do, have the know-how, as wellas the expertise to carry out all the arduous and demanding tasks. Forinstance, as soon as I graduated at the Faculty of Philology I had to take apart-time teaching job. I was overwhelmed with all the expectations my employerhad in everyday practice, whereas there was no need at all of all the theory Ihad mastered throughout my studies.

On the otherhand, it is beyond doubt that most of the jobs would require employees to do alot of multi-tasking and to be capable of meeting deadlines while conductingproject work. Apparently, big companies would prefer to employ a personwell-equipped with all the necessary knowledge related to several positionswithin their range, instead of over-staffing. Notwithstanding thecompetitiveness among businesses, there is always a huge demand for the topnotch professionals within one sector. This will be possible, only and only ifuniversities raise their standards and provide broad education and practice fortheir students.

Inconclusion, I would maintain that tertiary education should be morecontent-specific and ensure the fastest and highest quality for theirgraduates. Not only will professionals be able to use their universityknowledge as a catalyst towards their career, but they will be able to make aliving out of it for a lifetime.

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